European Regional Convergence Revisited: A Weighted Least Squares Approach
AbstractA plethora of past studies have concluded that unconditional "&bgr;"-convergence is present in a broad sample of regions, implying that poor regions grow faster than rich ones. All these econometric studies tend to overlook the relative importance or size of each region in the national setting, treating all regional observations as equal. However, this assumption might lead to unrealistic or misleading results. Convergence analysis could be more meaningful if it included a weighting mechanism taking into account the size of regions. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the inclusion of a weighting mechanism in "&bgr;"-convergence analysis, giving more weight to larger regions and less to smaller ones, can result in sharply different implications for the regional convergence-divergence process. For this reason, both unweighted ordinary least squares (OLS) and weighted least squares estimators are used in the analysis of regional (intra-national) convergence within 10 European Union (EU) countries over the period 1990-2000. The comparison between the two methods reveals that when regions are appropriately weighted for their size, intra-national divergence, rather than convergence found with the OLS approach, seems to be the dominant experience in the EU. Copyright (c) 2009 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Gatton College of Business and Economics, University of Kentucky in its journal Growth and Change.
Volume (Year): 40 (2009)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0017-4815
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Emili Tortosa-Ausina & Francisco Pérez & Matilde Mas & Francisco J. Goerlich, 2005. "Growth and Convergence Profiles in the Spanish Provinces (1965-1997)," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(1), pages 147-182.
- Ron Martin, 2000.
"Emu Versus The Regions? Regional Convergence And Divergence In Euroland,"
ESRC Centre for Business Research - Working Papers
wp179, ESRC Centre for Business Research.
- Ron Martin, 2001. "EMU versus the regions? Regional convergence and divergence in Euroland," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 1(1), pages 51-80, January.
- Aki Kangasharju, 1998. "beta convergence in Finland: regional differences in speed of convergence," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(5), pages 679-687.
- Dimitris K. Christopoulos & Efthymios G. Tsionas, 2004. "Convergence and regional productivity differences: Evidence from Greek prefectures," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 387-396, 09.
- Tiiu Paas & Friso Schlitte, 2006.
"Regional Income Inequality and Convergence Processes in the EU-25,"
ERSA conference papers
ersa06p229, European Regional Science Association.
- Paas, Tiiu & Schlitte, Friso, 2007. "Regional income inequality and convergence processes in the EU-25," HWWI Research Papers 1-11, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
- Mankiw, N Gregory & Romer, David & Weil, David N, 1992.
"A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-37, May.
- Sebastian Edwards, 1997.
"Openness, Productivity and Growth: What Do We Really Know?,"
NBER Working Papers
5978, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Edwards, Sebastian, 1998. "Openness, Productivity and Growth: What Do We Really Know?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(447), pages 383-98, March.
- Galor, Oded & Zang, Hyoungsoo, 1997. "Fertility, income distribution, and economic growth: Theory and cross-country evidence," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 197-229, May.
- Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X, 1996.
"The Classical Approach to Convergence Analysis,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1019-36, July.
- Sala-i-martin, X., 1995. "The Classical Approach to Convergence Analysis," Papers 734, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1995. "The classical approach to convergence analysis," Economics Working Papers 117, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1995. "The Classical Approach to Convergence Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 1254, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Andrés Rodríguez-Pose & Ugo Fratesi, 2003.
"Between development and social policies: the impact of European Structural Funds in Objective 1 Regions,"
European Economy Group Working Papers
28, European Economy Group.
- Andres RodrIguez-Pose & Ugo Fratesi†, 2004. "Between Development and Social Policies: The Impact of European Structural Funds in Objective 1 Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(1), pages 97-113.
- Quah, Danny T., 1996. "Empirics for economic growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1353-1375, June.
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- Damien Neven & Claudine Gouymte, 1995.
"Regional Convergence in the European Community,"
Journal of Common Market Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(1), pages 47-65, 03.
- Gouyette, Claudine & Neven, Damien J, 1994. "Regional Convergence in the European Community," CEPR Discussion Papers 914, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Damien NEVEN & Claudine GOUYETTE, 1993. "Regional Convergence in the European Comunity," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du DÃ©partement d'EconomÃ©trie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 9311, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
- Helmut Hofer & Andreas Worgotter, 1997. "Regional Per Capita Income Convergence in Austria," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(1), pages 1-12.
- Paul M Romer, 1999.
"Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
2232, David K. Levine.
- Peter Gripaios & Paul Bishop & Sarah Keast, 2000. "Differences in GDP per head in GB counties: some suggested explanations," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(9), pages 1161-1167.
- Julide Yıldırım & Nadir Öcal, 2006. "Income Inequality and Economic Convergence in Turkey," Transition Studies Review, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 559-568, October.
- Paas, Tiiu & Schlitte, Friso, 2006. "Regional Income Inequality and Convergence Processes in the EU-25," HWWA Discussion Papers 355, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
- Barro, R.J., 1989.
"Economic Growth In A Cross Section Of Countries,"
RCER Working Papers
201, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- Folster, Stefan & Henrekson, Magnus, 1999.
"Growth and the public sector: a critique of the critics,"
European Journal of Political Economy,
Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 337-358, June.
- Fölster, Stefan & Henrekson, Magnus, 1997. "Growth and the Public Sector: A Critique of the Critics," Working Paper Series 492, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 10 Jun 1998.
- Jan Fagerberg & Bart Verspagen, 1996. "Heading for Divergence? Regional Growth in Europe Reconsidered," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(3), pages 431-448, 09.
- Button, Kenneth J & Pentecost, Eric J, 1995. "Testing for Convergence of the EU Regional Economies," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 33(4), pages 664-71, October.
- R. Paci, 1996.
"More similar and less equal. Economic growth in the European regions,"
Working Paper CRENoS
199609, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
- Raffaele Paci, 1997. "More similar and less equal: Economic growth in the European regions," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 133(4), pages 609-634, December.
- Cashin, Paul, 1995.
"Economic Growth and Convergence across the Seven Colonies of Australasia: 1861-1991,"
The Economic Record,
The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 71(213), pages 132-44, June.
- Cashin, P.A., 1993. "Economic Growth and Convergence Across the Seven Colonies of Australia: 1861-1991," Papers 688, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Fedorov, Leonid, 2002. "Regional Inequality and Regional Polarization in Russia, 1990-99," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 443-456, March.
- Junsen Zhang & Tianyou Li, 2000.
"International Inequality and Convergence in Educational Attainment: 1960-1990,"
Departmental Working Papers
_121, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics.
- Zhang, Junsen & Li, Tianyou, 2002. "International Inequality and Convergence in Educational Attainment, 1960-1990," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(3), pages 383-92, October.
- Nazrul Islam, 2003. "What have We Learnt from the Convergence Debate?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(3), pages 309-362, 07.
- Davies, Sara & Hallet, Martin, 2002. "Interactions between national and regional development," HWWA Discussion Papers 207, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
- Bernard, Andrew B & Durlauf, Steven N, 1995.
"Convergence in International Output,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(2), pages 97-108, April-Jun.
- Serge Coulombe & Frank C. Lee, 1995. "Convergence across Canadian Provinces, 1961 to 1991," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(4a), pages 886-98, November.
- Clarke, George R. G., 1992.
"More evidence on income distribution and growth,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1064, The World Bank.
- Costas Siriopoulos Shaw & Dimitrios Asteriou, 1998. "Testing for Convergence Across the Greek Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(6), pages 537-546.
- Galor, Oded, 1996.
"Convergence? Inferences from Theoretical Models,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1350, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Niebuhr, Annekatrin, 2000. "Convergence and the effects of spatial interaction," HWWA Discussion Papers 110, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
- Magrini, Stefano, 2004. "Regional (di)convergence," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 62, pages 2741-2796 Elsevier.
- Giuseppe Arbia & Roberto Basile & Gianfranco Piras, 2005. "Using Spatial Panel Data in Modelling Regional Growth and Convergence," ISAE Working Papers 55, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).
- Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
- Jonathan Temple, 1999. "The New Growth Evidence," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 112-156, March.
- Paul Krugman, 1990.
"Increasing Returns and Economic Geography,"
NBER Working Papers
3275, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wade, Robert Hunter, 2004. "Is Globalization Reducing Poverty and Inequality?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 567-589, April.
- Grier, Kevin B. & Tullock, Gordon, 1989. "An empirical analysis of cross-national economic growth, 1951-1980," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 259-276, September.
- Abramovitz, Moses, 1986. "Catching Up, Forging Ahead, and Falling Behind," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(02), pages 385-406, June.
- Noland, Marcus, 2005. "Religion and economic performance," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1215-1232, August.
- George Petrakos & Andr�s Rodr�guez-Pose & Antonis Rovolis, 2005. "Growth, integration, and regional disparities in the European Union," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 37(10), pages 1837-1855, October.
- Matthew Cole & Eric Neumayer, 2003. "The pitfalls of convergence analysis: is the income gap really widening?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(6), pages 355-357.
- Panagiotis Artelaris & Paschalis A. Arvanitidis & George Petrakos, 2011.
"Convergence patterns in the world economy: exploring the nonlinearity hypothesis,"
Journal of Economic Studies,
Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(3), pages 236-252, July.
- Artelaris, Panagiotis & Arvanitidis, Paschalis & Petrakos, George, 2008. "Convergence Patterns in the World Economy: Exploring the Non-Linearity Hypothesis," Papers DYNREG32, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
- Herbst, Mikolaj & Wójcik, Piotr, 2011. "Growth and divergence of the polish subregions over 1995–2006: a search for determinants and spatial patterns," MPRA Paper 34731, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.