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Die Psychologie irrationaler Wirtschaftspolitik am Beispiel des Reformstaus

  • Heinemann, Friedrich

Psychologische Studien belegen vielfältige Abweichungen menschlicher Denk- und Verhaltensweisen von den üblichen Rationalitätsannahmen ökonomischer Modelle. Die traditionelle Ökonomie begegnet diesen Hinweisen begrenzter Rationalität mit Zurückhaltung, auch wenn derartige Ansätze inzwischen auf einzelnen Gebieten, wie etwa der Finanzmarktanalyse im Rahmen der Behavioural Finance Akzeptanz gewinnen. Um so mehr erstaunt es, dass psychologische Einsichten noch kaum Eingang in die Analyse der Wirtschaftspolitik gefunden haben, wo ja nicht einmal das Korrektiv der Märkte zur Rationalität zwingt. Der Wähler hat kaum Anreize zu einer rationalen Beurteilung wirtschaftspolitischer Programme, da seine individuelle Wahlentscheidung praktisch keinen Einfluss auf die Qualität der Wirtschaftspolitik hat. In der politökonomischen Analyse hat dies Kalkül unter dem Terminus der ?rationalen Ignoranz? einen festen Platz. Mit der gleichen Begründung, mit der ein geringer Informationsstand des Wählers für rational erklärt wird, kann nun aber auch die ?rationale Irrationalität? begründet werden: Kein Wähler wird individuell dafür bestraft, wenn er die Beurteilung wirtschaftspolitischer Optionen auf Basis angeborener Instinkte und nicht auf der Grundlage eines Rationalitätskalküls vornimmt. Wenn derartige Irrationalitäten schon eine hilfreiche Rolle zur Erklärung von Verhaltensweisen unter Marktbedingungen etwa im Rahmen der Behavioural Finance spielen, dann ist auch ein Erkenntnisbeitrag bei der Analyse wirtschaftspolitischer Verhaltensweisen zu erwarten.

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Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 00-12.

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Date of creation: 2000
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:5287
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  1. Matthew Rabin, 1998. "Psychology and Economics," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(1), pages 11-46, March.
  2. Tversky, Amos & Kahneman, Daniel, 1986. "Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(4), pages S251-78, October.
  3. Alesina, A. & Drazen, A., 1991. "Why Are Stabilizations Delayed?," Papers 6-91, Tel Aviv - the Sackler Institute of Economic Studies.
  4. Dani Rodrik, 1996. "Understanding Economic Policy Reform," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(1), pages 9-41, March.
  5. Tversky, Amos & Kahneman, Daniel, 1991. "Loss Aversion in Riskless Choice: A Reference-Dependent Model," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(4), pages 1039-61, November.
  6. Fernandez, Raquel & Rodrik, Dani, 1991. "Resistance to Reform: Status Quo Bias in the Presence of Individual-Specific Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1146-55, December.
  7. Samuelson, William & Zeckhauser, Richard, 1988. " Status Quo Bias in Decision Making," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 7-59, March.
  8. Smith, Vernon L, 1991. "Rational Choice: The Contrast between Economics and Psychology," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 877-97, August.
  9. Smith, Vernon L & Walker, James M, 1993. "Monetary Rewards and Decision Cost in Experimental Economics," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 31(2), pages 245-61, April.
  10. John Conlisk, 1996. "Why Bounded Rationality?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(2), pages 669-700, June.
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