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Gender-related provisions in regional trade agreements


  • Monteiro, José-Antonio


Regional Trade agreements (RTAs) are sometimes viewed as laboratories in which new types of provisions are negotiated to address recent trade-related issues and challenges. A detailed analysis of 556 RTAs, including 292 agreements currently in force and notified to the WTO (as of November 2018), shows that although the inclusion of gender-related provisions in RTAs is not a recent phenomenon, a limited but increasing number of RTAs, namely 74 agreements, refer explicitly to gender-related issues. These gender-related provisions are highly heterogeneous and differ in terms of location in the RTA, language, scope and commitments. Most gender-related provisions are found in a single or couple of RTAs and couched in best endeavour language. In the last three years, a limited number of RTAs have expanded significantly the scope of gender-related provisions by establishing a dedicated article or chapter on trade and gender.

Suggested Citation

  • Monteiro, José-Antonio, 2018. "Gender-related provisions in regional trade agreements," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2018-15, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:wtowps:ersd201815

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Helpman, Elhanan, 1987. "Imperfect competition and international trade: Evidence from fourteen industrial countries," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 62-81, March.
    2. Helpman, Elhanan, 1987. "Imperfect competition and international trade : Opening remarks," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(1-2), pages 77-81.
    3. Damian Raess & Dora Sari, 2018. "Labor Provisions in Trade Agreements (LABPTA): Introducing a New Dataset," Global Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 9(4), pages 451-466, November.
    4. Monteiro, José-Antonio, 2016. "Typology of environment-related provisions in regional trade agreements," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2016-13, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
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    Cited by:

    1. Renata Vargas Amaral & Lillyana Daza Jaller, . "The role of regulation and MNEs in ensuring equal opportunities for women," UNCTAD Transnational Corporations Journal, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    2. Fatima Olanike Kareem & Olayinka Idowu Kareem, 2021. "Employment Responses to EU Food Safety Regulations: A Gendered Perspective," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 33(6), pages 1899-1929, December.
    3. Monteiro, José-Antonio, 2021. "The evolution of gender-related provisions in regional trade agreements," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2021-8, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    4. Monteiro, José-Antonio, 2021. "Buena vista: Social corporate responsibility provisions in regional trade agreements," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2021-11, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.

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    More about this item


    Regional Trade Agreements; Gender; Women;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration

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