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Der Trade-off zwischen deutschen Direktinvestitionen und Exporten: Wie wichtig sind die verschiedenen Dimensionen der Distanz?

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  • Jungmittag, Andre

Abstract

Zur Versorgung auslandischer Märkte können Unternehmen zwischen Exporten, der Produktion in Zweigniederlassungen und Lizenzvergaben wählen. Mit Blick auf die ersteren beiden Möglichkeiten wird in der jüngeren Literatur vor allem die Nähe-Konzentrationshypothese diskutiert, die besagt, dass es um so wahrscheinlicher sei, dass Unternehmen ihre Produktion horizontal über die nationalen Grenzen hinweg ausdehnen anstatt zu exportieren, je höher die Transportkosten und Handelsbarrieren und je niedriger die Investitionsbarrieren und die Skalenerträge auf der Betriebsebene relativ zu denen auf der Unternehmensebene sind. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Auswirkungen der verschiedenen Dimensionen der Distanz, die im Rahmen dieser Hypothese relevant sind, auf den Trade-off zwischen Exporten und direktinvestitionsbasierten Umsätzen bei den bundesdeutschen Aktivitäten in 62 Ländern im Zeitraum von 2000 bis 2007 empirisch analysiert. Da es sich bei den erklärenden Variablen um zeitinvariante oder sich über die Zeit kaum ändernde Größen handelt, wird ein von Plümper/Troeger (2007) vorgeschlagenes dreistufiges Schätzverfahren verwendet, das in diesem Fall besser geeignet ist als das traditionelle Paneldatenschätzverfahren mit fixen Ländereffekten. Insgesamt bestätigen die Schätzergebnisse die unterschiedliche Bedeutung der verschiedenen Dimensionen der Distanz im Rahmen der Nähe-Konzentrationshypothese für den Trade-off zwischen auf Direktinvestitionen basierenden Umsätzen und Exporten für die bundesdeutschen Aktivitäten im Ausland.

Suggested Citation

  • Jungmittag, Andre, 2014. "Der Trade-off zwischen deutschen Direktinvestitionen und Exporten: Wie wichtig sind die verschiedenen Dimensionen der Distanz?," Working Paper Series: Business and Law 04, Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Business and Law.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:fhfwps:04
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Keywords

    proximity-concentration hypothesis; foreign trade; foreign direct investment; distance; panel data estimation; fixed effects;

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

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