IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

New Trade Theory Takes Over Monetary Theory


  • M Gani

    (Economic Science Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh.)


Prevailing trade theory is a neglected stepchild of economics. Micro rejects the sole reason for trade’s occurrence. It declares zero profit in equilibrium. Monetary theory and macroeconomics dismiss concerns of trade financing. They assert that money has nothing to do with traded output, but everything to do with storing value. But now a new trade theory takes over monetary theory, by reducing money into a mere tool of trade, as just a means of payment. It takes over theory of exchange, abolishing any distinction between micro and macro. Finally, all of economics becomes a study of exchange, what Whately wished in 1832. This magical empowerment of trade theory occurs as we add indirect trade formally. We put it in the familiar input-output table. We consider demand and supply at four levels: for each good, for each transaction, for each household/nation, and for each economy. At each level, something different happens in equilibrium. We employ intermediaries to settle prices through arbitrage, and payments through seigniorage (by creating and issuing money). Suddenly economics studies economy rather than human behavior. The market economy is an institution of exchange, which is a matrix of real output. All economics now belongs to trade.

Suggested Citation

  • M Gani, 2004. "New Trade Theory Takes Over Monetary Theory," International Trade 0405005, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpit:0405005
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 34. Whately's 1832 dream comes true as economics becomes science of exchange. Misesian message is put in Leontief's table. Monetary theory is changed at its root.

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ostroy, Joseph M. & Starr, Ross M., 1990. "The transactions role of money," Handbook of Monetary Economics,in: B. M. Friedman & F. H. Hahn (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 3-62 Elsevier.
    2. Leamer, Edward E, 1980. "The Leontief Paradox, Reconsidered," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(3), pages 495-503, June.
    3. Debreu, Gerard, 1991. "The Mathematization of Economic Theory," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(1), pages 1-7, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Social Choice; Trade; Entrepreneurship; Intermediation; Payment Circuit; Money; Price; Unemployment; Business Cycle; Debt.;

    JEL classification:

    • A10 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - General
    • C67 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Input-Output Models
    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
    • D46 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Value Theory
    • D57 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Input-Output Tables and Analysis
    • E10 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - General
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • E30 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • E40 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - General
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpit:0405005. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.