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New Trade Theory Takes Over Monetary Theory

Author

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  • M Gani

    (Economic Science Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh.)

Abstract

Prevailing trade theory is a neglected stepchild of economics. Micro rejects the sole reason for trade’s occurrence. It declares zero profit in equilibrium. Monetary theory and macroeconomics dismiss concerns of trade financing. They assert that money has nothing to do with traded output, but everything to do with storing value. But now a new trade theory takes over monetary theory, by reducing money into a mere tool of trade, as just a means of payment. It takes over theory of exchange, abolishing any distinction between micro and macro. Finally, all of economics becomes a study of exchange, what Whately wished in 1832. This magical empowerment of trade theory occurs as we add indirect trade formally. We put it in the familiar input-output table. We consider demand and supply at four levels: for each good, for each transaction, for each household/nation, and for each economy. At each level, something different happens in equilibrium. We employ intermediaries to settle prices through arbitrage, and payments through seigniorage (by creating and issuing money). Suddenly economics studies economy rather than human behavior. The market economy is an institution of exchange, which is a matrix of real output. All economics now belongs to trade.

Suggested Citation

  • M Gani, 2004. "New Trade Theory Takes Over Monetary Theory," International Trade 0405005, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpit:0405005
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 34. Whately's 1832 dream comes true as economics becomes science of exchange. Misesian message is put in Leontief's table. Monetary theory is changed at its root.
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    File URL: https://econwpa.ub.uni-muenchen.de/econ-wp/it/papers/0405/0405005.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ostroy, Joseph M. & Starr, Ross M., 1990. "The transactions role of money," Handbook of Monetary Economics,in: B. M. Friedman & F. H. Hahn (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 3-62 Elsevier.
    2. Leamer, Edward E, 1980. "The Leontief Paradox, Reconsidered," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(3), pages 495-503, June.
    3. Debreu, Gerard, 1991. "The Mathematization of Economic Theory," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(1), pages 1-7, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Social Choice; Trade; Entrepreneurship; Intermediation; Payment Circuit; Money; Price; Unemployment; Business Cycle; Debt.;

    JEL classification:

    • A10 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - General
    • C67 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Input-Output Models
    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
    • D46 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Value Theory
    • D57 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Input-Output Tables and Analysis
    • E10 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - General
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • E30 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • E40 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - General
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

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