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Reinsurance, Taxes And Efficiency: A Contingent Claims Model Of Insurance Market Equilibrium

Author

Listed:
  • James R. GARVEN

    (jgarven@mcl.cc.utexas.edu)

  • Henri Louberge

    (louberge@uni2a.unige.ch)

Abstract

This paper presents an analytical model of underwriting capacity and insurance market equilibrium under an asymmetric corporate tax schedule. It is shown that reinsurance markets enable risk-neutral insurers to allocate tax shields to those firms that have the greatest capacity for utilizing them, in much the same manner as leasing companies share tax shield benefits with lessees in leasing markets. Reinsurance is therefore used as an efficient short-term mechanism to yield the optimal allocation of tax shield benefits. In equilibrium, asymmetric taxes cause the insurance price to be actuarially unfair and the expected return on capital invested in insurance reflects the probability of paying taxes. Report_No: JG#1

Suggested Citation

  • James R. GARVEN & Henri Louberge, 1994. "Reinsurance, Taxes And Efficiency: A Contingent Claims Model Of Insurance Market Equilibrium," Finance 9404001, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpfi:9404001
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Green, Richard C & Talmor, Eli, 1985. " The Structure and Incentive Effects of Corporate Tax Liabilities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(4), pages 1095-1114, September.
    2. Heaton, Hal, 1986. "Corporate Taxation and Leasing," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(03), pages 351-359, September.
    3. Heaton, Hal, 1987. "On the Bias of the Corporate Tax against High-Risk Projects," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(03), pages 365-371, September.
    4. DeAngelo, Harry & Masulis, Ronald W., 1980. "Optimal capital structure under corporate and personal taxation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-29, March.
    5. William B. Fairley, 1979. "Investment Income and Profit Margins in Property-Liability Insurance: Theory and Empirical Results," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 192-210, Spring.
    6. Doherty, N A & Tinic, S M, 1981. "Reinsurance under Conditions of Capital Market Equilibrium: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(4), pages 949-953, September.
    7. Miller, Merton H, 1977. "Debt and Taxes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 261-275, May.
    8. Brennan, M J, 1979. "The Pricing of Contingent Claims in Discrete Time Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(1), pages 53-68, March.
    9. Mayers, David & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1982. "On the Corporate Demand for Insurance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55(2), pages 281-296, April.
    10. Mayers, David & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1990. "On the Corporate Demand for Insurance: Evidence from the Reinsurance Market," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(1), pages 19-40, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Biener, Christian & Eling, Martin & Jia, Ruo, 2017. "The structure of the global reinsurance market: An analysis of efficiency, scale, and scope," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 213-229.
    2. Harrington, Scott E. & Niehaus, Greg, 2003. "Capital, corporate income taxes, and catastrophe insurance," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 365-389, October.
    3. Lockett, Andy & Wright, Mike, 2001. "The syndication of venture capital investments," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 375-390, October.
    4. Biener, Christian & Eling, Martin & Jia, Ruo, 2016. "The Roles of Industry Idiosyncrasy, Cost Efficiency, and Risk in Internationalization: Evidence from the Insurance Industry," Working Papers on Finance 1602, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    5. Upreti, Vineet & Adams, Mike, 2015. "The strategic role of reinsurance in the United Kingdom’s (UK) non-life insurance market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 206-219.
    6. James F. Moore, 1999. "Tail Estimation and Catastrophe Security Pricing: Can We Tell What Target We Hit if We Are Shooting in the Dark?," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 99-14, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    7. Ning Wang & Yiling Deng, 2016. "Market responses to loss shocks and insurers' post-catastrophe performance in the US property-casualty insurance market," International Journal of Economics and Business Research, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 11(3), pages 231-246.
    8. Schlütter, Sebastian, 2011. "The role of frictional costs for insurance pricing and insurer default risk," ICIR Working Paper Series 07/11, Goethe University Frankfurt, International Center for Insurance Regulation (ICIR).
    9. Adams, Mike & Hardwick, Philip & Zou, Hong, 2008. "Reinsurance and corporate taxation in the United Kingdom life insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 101-115, January.
    10. Henri LOUBERGE & Harris SCHLESINGER, 1999. "Optimal Catastrophe Insurance with Multiple Catastrophes," FAME Research Paper Series rp7, International Center for Financial Asset Management and Engineering.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Reinsurance; option pricing theory; contingent claims; asymmetric taxes.;

    JEL classification:

    • G - Financial Economics

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