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Liquidity Effects of Changes in a Pan-European Stock Index


  • Ulrich Pape

    (ESCP-EAP European School of Management Berlin)

  • Stephan Schmidt-Tank

    (ESCP-EAP European School of Management Berlin)


Adding or deleting a security to or from an index can influence the share price considerably. A possible explanation that has been brought forward in the literature is the liquidity hypothesis according to which an increase in liquidity after an addition is responsible for the observed rise in value. In the following paper, we examine liquidity effects on securities that have been added to or deleted from the pan- European index STOXX 50 between 1998 and 2003, using bid-ask spreads as indicators for liquidity. While there is a medium term price effect, bid-ask spreads do not change significantly due to the index addition or deletion. Regression analysis shows that the explanatory power of bid- ask spreads for the observed price effect is negligible. As a consequence of our empirical findings, the liquidity hypothesis has to be rejected for the STOXX 50. This result, however, does not appear particularly surprising, as the STOXX 50 is composed of already highly liquid securities whose trading liquidity appears not to depend on membership in an international index. A possible explanation for the rejection of the liquidity hypothesis is that the applicability of the liquidity hypothesis hinges on the liquidity class of the stocks concerned before being added. Marginal increases of liquidity due to an index addition might decline with larger initial liquidity of the stocks added. Subsequent studies could focus on the particular shape of this 'liquidity curve' of stocks.

Suggested Citation

  • Ulrich Pape & Stephan Schmidt-Tank, 2005. "Liquidity Effects of Changes in a Pan-European Stock Index," Finance 0503016, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpfi:0503016
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 22. Paper presented at the 11th Annual Meeting of the Germen Finance Association, Tübingen, October 1, 2004.

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim, 1986. "Asset pricing and the bid-ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 223-249, December.
    2. Beneish, Messod D. & Gardner, John C., 1995. "Information Costs and Liquidity Effects from Changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average List," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(01), pages 135-157, March.
    3. Boehmer, Ekkehart & Masumeci, Jim & Poulsen, Annette B., 1991. "Event-study methodology under conditions of event-induced variance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 253-272, December.
    4. Brown, Stephen J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1985. "Using daily stock returns : The case of event studies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-31, March.
    5. Brown, Stephen J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1980. "Measuring security price performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 205-258, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sascha Wilkens & Jens Wimschulte, 2005. "Price and Volume Effects Associated with 2003’s Major Reorganization of German Stock Indices," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 19(1), pages 61-98, June.

    More about this item


    Pan-European stock index; index effect; STOXX; liquidity; price effect;

    JEL classification:

    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets

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