Competition and Integration among Stock Exchanges in Europe: Network Effects, Implicit Mergers and Remote Access
The economic theory of network externalities and a simple game theoretical framework are used to explore the issue of competition among stock exchanges and the possibility of consolidation in the European stock-exchange industry, among the different exchanges. The main features of this paper are the following: the treatment of exchanges as firms; the application of network externalities to study competition among exchanges; the extension of network externalities, through implementing "cross-network" effects; the existence of equilibria where exchanges may decide, even unilaterally, to achieve full com-patibility through implicit mergers and remote access, "specializing" only in trading or listing services. One implication is that consolidation of European exchanges into one may occur with a welfare efficient outcome or with a lock-in to a Pareto-inferior equilibrium. This is due to the network externalities and the different starting points of the various exchanges. "Implicit mergers" among exchanges together with remote access are always weakly (in half of the cases, strictly) more efficient than the actual competition, provided that the fixed cost of compatibility are sufficiently low. This finding sheds light also on the existence and efficacy, especially in the USA, of automated trading systems, which can be seen as exchanges specialized in trading services.
|Date of creation:||Jan 1998|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 3301 Steinberg Hall-Dietrich Hall, 3620 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104.6367|
Web page: http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Joseph Farrell & Garth Saloner, 1984.
"Standardization, Compatibility and Innovation,"
345, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Allen, Franklin & Santomero, Anthony M., 1997.
"The theory of financial intermediation,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 21(11-12), pages 1461-1485, December.
- Nicholas Economides, 1997.
"The Economics of Networks,"
- Economides, Nicholas, 1996. "The economics of networks," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 673-699, October.
- Nicholas Economides, 1997. "The Economics of Networks," Brazilian Electronic Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, vol. 1(0), December.
- Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1985. "Network Externalities, Competition, and Compatibility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(3), pages 424-440, June.
- Joseph Farrell & Garth Saloner, 1985.
"Installed Base and Compatibility With Implications for Product Preannouncements,"
385, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Joseph Farrell & Garth Saloner, 1986. "Installed Base and Compatibility, With Implications for Product Preannouncements," Working papers 411, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Witt, Ulrich, 1997. ""Lock-in" vs. "critical masses" -- Industrial change under network externalities," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 753-773, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wop:pennin:98-03. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Krichel)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.