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Learning from NOTES: Organizational Issues in Groupware Implementation


  • Wanda Orlikowski


This paper explores the introduction of a groupware into an organization to understand the changes in work practices and social interaction facilitated by the technology. The results suggest that people's mental models and organizations' structure and culture significantly influence how groupware is implemented and used. Specifically, in the absence of mental models that stressed its collaborative nature, groupware was interpreted in terms of familiar personal, stand-alone technologies such as spreadsheets. Further, the culture and structure proved few incentives or norms for cooperating or sharing expertise, hence the groupware on its own was unlikely to engender collaboration. Recognizing the central influence of these cognitive and organizational elements is critical to developers, researchers, and practitioners of groupware.

Suggested Citation

  • Wanda Orlikowski, 1992. "Learning from NOTES: Organizational Issues in Groupware Implementation," Working Paper Series 134, MIT Center for Coordination Science.
  • Handle: RePEc:wop:mitccs:134

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    Cited by:

    1. Okamura, Kazuo., 1993. "Technology mediation : an organizational mechanism for contextualizing technologies in use," Working papers WP 3612-93., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    2. Simon Gaechter & Georg von Krogh & Stefan Haefliger, 2006. "Private-Collective Innovation and the Fragility of Knowledge Sharing," Discussion Papers 2006-21, The Centre for Decision Research and Experimental Economics, School of Economics, University of Nottingham.
    3. Orlikowski, Wanda J. (Wanda Janina), 1995. "Evolving with Notes : organizational change around groupware technology," Working papers 3823-95. CCSTR ; #186., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    4. Malone, Thomas W. & Crowston, Kevin., 1993. "The interdisciplinary study of coordination," Working papers 3630-93. CCSTR ; #157., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    5. repec:spr:grdene:v:9:y:2000:i:2:d:10.1023_a:1008754621165 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Timothy F. Bresnahan & Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin M. Hitt, 2002. "Information Technology, Workplace Organization, and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 339-376.
    7. de Vaujany, François-Xavier & Fomin, Wlad, 2006. "Design in practice: bridging the gap between design and use dichotomies in practice-based studies," MPRA Paper 1313, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Okamura, Kazuo., 1994. "Helping CSCW applications succeed : the role of mediators in the context of use," Working papers 3717-94. CCSTR ; #171., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    9. Van Alstyne, Marshall W. (Marshall Ware) & Brynjolfsson, Erik. & Madnick, Stuart E., 2003. "Why not one big database? : principles for data ownership," Working papers #94-03, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    10. Karlheinz Krautz & Morten Thanning Vendelø, 2001. "Knowledge Sharing as Spontaneous Order: On the Emergence of Strong and Weak Ties," ROCK Working Papers 016, Department of Computer and Management Sciences, University of Trento, Italy, revised 12 Jun 2008.
    11. Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin M. Hitt, 2003. "Computing Productivity: Firm-Level Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 793-808, November.
    12. Lee, Fiona, 1997. "When the Going Gets Tough, Do the Tough Ask for Help? Help Seeking and Power Motivation in Organizations," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 336-363, December.
    13. Vermunt, A.H. & Smits, M.T. & Noorderhaven, N.G. & Hofstede, G.J., 1997. "Wired international teams : Experiments in strategic decision making by multi-cultural virtual teams," Other publications TiSEM de5497e6-6e99-4fd2-b5a6-3, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    14. Cuellar, Michael J. & Gallivan, Michael J., 2006. "A framework for ex ante project risk assessment based on absorptive capacity," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 173(3), pages 1123-1138, September.

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