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Evolutionary Branching and Sympatric Speciation Caused by Different Types of Ecological Interactions


  • M. Doebeli
  • U. Dieckmann


Evolutionary branching occurs when frequency-dependent selection splits a phenotypically monomorphic population into two distinct phenotypic clusters. A prerequisite for evolutionary branching is that directional selection drives the population towards a fitness minimum in phenotype space. This paper demonstrates that selection regimes leading to evolutionary branching readily arise from a wide variety of different ecological interactions within and between species. We use classical ecological models for symmetric and asymmetric competition, for mutualism, and for predator-prey interactions to describe evolving populations with continuously varying characters. For these models, we investigate the ecological and evolutionary conditions that allow for evolutionary branching and establish that branching is a generic and robust phenomenon. Evolutionary branching becomes a model for sympatric speciation when population genetics and mating mechanisms are incorporated into ecological models. In sexual populations with random mating, the continual production of intermediate phenotypes from two incipient branches prevents evolutionary branching. In contrast, when mating is assortative for the ecological characters under study, evolutionary branching is possible in sexual populations and can lead to speciation. Therefore, we also study the evolution of assortative mating as a quantitative character. We show that evolution under branching conditions selects for assortativeness and thus allows sexual populations to escape from fitness minima. We conclude that evolutionary branching offers a general basis for understanding adaptive speciation and radiation under a wide range of different ecological conditions.

Suggested Citation

  • M. Doebeli & U. Dieckmann, 2000. "Evolutionary Branching and Sympatric Speciation Caused by Different Types of Ecological Interactions," Working Papers ir00040, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
  • Handle: RePEc:wop:iasawp:ir00040

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    1. G. Meszena & E. Kisdi & U. Dieckmann & S.A.H. Geritz & J.A.J. Metz, 2000. "Evolutionary Optimization Models and Matrix Games in the Unified Perspective of Adaptive Dynamics," Working Papers ir00039, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    2. U. Dieckmann & R. Law, 1996. "The Dynamical Theory of Coevolution: A Derivation from Stochastic Ecological Processes," Working Papers wp96001, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
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    2. Bhattacharyay, A. & Drossel, B., 2005. "Modeling coevolution and sympatric speciation of flowers and pollinators," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 345(1), pages 159-172.
    3. repec:eee:thpobi:v:76:y:2009:i:1:p:1-12 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:eee:thpobi:v:73:y:2008:i:2:p:222-243 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Ross Cressman & Josef Hofbauer & Frank Riedel, 2005. "Stability of the Replicator Equation for a Single-Species with a Multi-Dimensional Continuous Trait Space," Bonn Econ Discussion Papers bgse12_2005, University of Bonn, Germany.
    6. repec:eee:thpobi:v:108:y:2016:i:c:p:75-88 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Bagnoli, Franco & Guardiani, Carlo, 2005. "A model of sympatric speciation through assortative mating," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 347(C), pages 534-574.
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    10. repec:eee:thpobi:v:77:y:2010:i:2:p:95-104 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Cressman, Ross, 2005. "Stability of the replicator equation with continuous strategy space," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 127-147, September.
    12. repec:eee:thpobi:v:74:y:2008:i:4:p:311-323 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. repec:eee:thpobi:v:89:y:2013:i:c:p:12-23 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Cook, James N. & Oono, Y., 2010. "Competitive localization," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(9), pages 1849-1860.

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