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Kalecki’s Profit Equation after 80 Years

Author

Listed:
  • Kazimierz Laski

    () (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)

  • Herbert Walther

Abstract

Abstract Keynes and Kalecki both assume that private investment determines (but is not determined by) private savings. For Keynes, the desired level of saving is an increasing function of GDP, somehow related to the psychology of the society; ‘autonomous’ shifts of investment are determined by the state of long-term expectations. For Kalecki, the saving propensity depends on the income distribution in a capitalist society, while investment expenditures are determined by past investment decisions. The causality link between investment and saving runs through profits. We take a look at short-run and long-run aspects of Kalecki’s fundamental profit equation (1) We argue that the short lag between investment decisions and expenditures is an essential element of any meaningful interpretation of Kalecki’s profit equation. This lag has critical implications for the interpretation of the multiplier, for the story of ‘wage-led versus profit-led growth’ and for the various tax paradoxes related to the Kaleckian profit equation. (2) We argue that an excess of desired long-term saving over investment, which might be caused by demographic ageing in Western economies, can only be eliminated by accepting the necessity of a permanent primary public deficit and/or active redistributive policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Kazimierz Laski & Herbert Walther, 2013. "Kalecki’s Profit Equation after 80 Years," wiiw Working Papers 100, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  • Handle: RePEc:wii:wpaper:100
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    File URL: https://wiiw.ac.at/kalecki-s-profit-equation-after-80-years-dlp-3020.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bhaduri, Amit & Marglin, Stephen, 1990. "Unemployment and the Real Wage: The Economic Basis for Contesting Political Ideologies," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(4), pages 375-393, December.
    2. Taylor, Lance, 1985. "A Stagnationist Model of Economic Growth," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(4), pages 383-403, December.
    3. Dutt, Amitava Krishna, 1984. "Stagnation, Income Distribution and Monopoly Power," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(1), pages 25-40, March.
    4. Blecker, Robert A, 1989. "International Competition, Income Distribution and Economic Growth," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(3), pages 395-412, September.
    5. Amit Bhaduri & Kazimierz Laski & Martin Riese, 2006. "A Model Of Interaction Between The Virtual And The Real Economy," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(3), pages 412-427, July.
    6. A. Bhaduri & K. Laski & M. Riese, 1999. "Effective demand versus profit maximization in aggregate demand/supply analysis: a dynamic perspective," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 52(210), pages 281-293.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    profit equation; wage-led and profit-led growth; Kalecki;

    JEL classification:

    • B22 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought since 1925 - - - Macroeconomics
    • B31 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought: Individuals - - - Individuals
    • E12 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian

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