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Financial indicators and growth in a cross section of countries

Author

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  • King, Robert G.
  • Levine, Ross

Abstract

The authors use existing measures of the financial system - and construct many new measures - to document the relationship between the financial system and long-run growth in a cross-section of countries between 1960 and 1989. They consider various measures of the size of the financial system, the importance of different financial institutions, the financial system's allocation of credit, the financial system's efficiency, and the degree of financial repression. They use graphs, correlations, and regressions to gauge the robustness of the partial correlation between growth and the financial indicators. They also examine two channels through which financial indicators may be linked to growth: the share of GDP allocated to investment; and the efficiency with which resources are used. They find that many of the financial system indicators are significantly correlated with growth through both investment and efficiency. Moreover, many of these partial correlations remain strong after controlling for initial conditions, dummy variables for Africa and Latin America, and measures of monetary, fiscal, and trade performance. Their analysis suggests that it is empirically important to identify which financial intermediaries aredoing the intermediation and to whom the financial system is allocating credit rather than simply using proxies for the overall size of the financial system, as has been common in past studies.

Suggested Citation

  • King, Robert G. & Levine, Ross, 1992. "Financial indicators and growth in a cross section of countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 819, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:819
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Dong He & Pardy, Robert, 1993. "Stock market development and financial deepening in developing countries : some correlation patterns," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1084, The World Bank.
    2. Eduardo Fernández-Arias & Peter Montiel, 1997. "Reforma y crecimiento en América Latina: ¿Puro dolor y nada que ganar?," Research Department Publications 4079, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    3. Eduardo Fern·ndez-Arias & Peter Montiel, 2001. "Reform and Growth in Latin America: All Pain, No Gain?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 48(3), pages 1-5.
    4. Comlanvi Jude EGGOH, 2009. "Développement financier, instabilité financière et croissance économique : un réexamen de la relation," LEO Working Papers / DR LEO 444, Orleans Economics Laboratory / Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orleans (LEO), University of Orleans.
    5. A. Galetovic, 1996. "Finance and growth: a synthesis and interpretation of the evidence," BNL Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 49(196), pages 59-82.
    6. Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay, 2011. "Rich States, Poor States: Convergence And Polarisation In India," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 58(3), pages 414-436, July.
    7. Hager HAMDANE BEN LETAIFA, 2011. "Déréglementation bancaire et stabilité financière dans les pays émergents," Journal of Academic Finance, RED research unit, university of Gabes, Tunisia, vol. 2(1), April.
    8. Corinne Le Gallic, 1995. "Déréglementation financière, cycle et croissance," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 46(2), pages 255-281.
    9. Alexander Galetovic, 1994. "Finance and growth: a synthesis and interpretation of the evidence," International Finance Discussion Papers 477, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    10. Loayza, Norman & Palacios, Luisa, 1997. "Economic reform and progress in Latin America and the Caribbean," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1829, The World Bank.
    11. Boopen Seetanah, 2008. "Financial development and economic growth: an ARDL approach for the case of the small island state of Mauritius," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(10), pages 809-813.
    12. Amarendra Sahoo & Khundrakpam J K, 2007. "A Review of Trends in Banking Indicators in North Eastern Region of India," Working Papers id:1253, eSocialSciences.
    13. Clarke, George R. G. & Cull, Robert, 1999. "Why Privatize? The Case of Argentina's Public Provincial Banks," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 865-886, May.
    14. Beckmann, Rainer & Eppendorfer, Carsten & Neimke, Markus, 2002. "Deepening European Financial Integration: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Evaluation of Growth and Employment Benefits," MPRA Paper 5272, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. A. Galetovic, 1996. "Finance and growth: a synthesis and interpretation of the evidence," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 49(196), pages 59-82.
    16. Reisen, Helmut, 1997. "Liberalizing foreign investments by pension funds: Positive and normative aspects," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1173-1182, July.
    17. William Easterly, 1992. "How Much does Policy Affect Growth?," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 29(87), pages 295-306.
    18. Ricardo N. Bebczuk, 2000. "Financiamiento empresario, desarrollo financiero y crecimiento," Premio de Banca Central Rodrigo Gómez / Central Banking Award "Rodrigo Gómez", Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA, number prg2000, octubre-d.
    19. Abid, Ilyes & Kaabia, Olfa & Guesmi, Khaled, 2014. "Stock market integration and risk premium: Empirical evidence for emerging economies of South Asia," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 408-416.
    20. Elsa Assidon, 1996. "L' « approfondissement financier » : épargne et crédit bancaires," Revue Tiers Monde, Programme National Persée, vol. 37(145), pages 153-171.
    21. Pardy, Robert, 1992. "Institutional reform in emerging securities markets," Policy Research Working Paper Series 907, The World Bank.
    22. José De Gregorio & Pablo Guidotti, 1992. "Notas sobre la Intermediación Financiera y Crecimiento Económico," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 29(87), pages 329-348.
    23. Cull, Robert J., 1997. "Financial sector adjustment lending : a mid-course analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1804, The World Bank.
    24. Mechthild Schrooten, 2001. "Some Remarks on Japanese Finance, Growth and International Integration," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 70(4), pages 515-526.
    25. Ricardo N. Bebczuk, 2000. "Corporate Finance, Financial Development, and Growth," Premio de Banca Central Rodrigo Gómez / Central Banking Award "Rodrigo Gómez", Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA, number prg2000eng, octubre-d.

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