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Private school participation in Pakistan

Author

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  • Raju,Dhushyanth
  • Nguyen,Quynh T.

Abstract

Private schooling is an important feature of the educational landscape in Pakistan and is increasingly a topic of public and government discourse. This study uses multiple rounds of national household sample surveys to examine the extent and nature of private school participation at the primary and secondary levels in Pakistan. Today, one-fifth of children -- or one-third of all students -- go to private school in Pakistan. Private school students tend to come from urban, wealthier, and more educated households than do government school students and especially out-of-school children. Important differences exist across Pakistan’s four provinces with respect to the characteristics of private school students relative to government school students, as well as in the composition of private school students. Private schooling is highly concentrated, with a few districts (situated mainly in northern Punjab province) accounting for most of the private school students. Private school participation among children varies largely from one household to another, rather than within households, and to a greater extent than does government school participation. The spatial patterns of private school supply are often strongly correlated with the spatial patterns of private school participation. In the 2000s, private school participation rates grew in Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces and across socioeconomic subgroups, contributing in particular to the growth in overall school participation rates for boys, children from urban households, and children from households in the highest wealth quintile. Nevertheless, the composition of private school students has become less unequal over time. This trend has been driven mainly by Punjab province, which has seen declines in the shares of private school students from urban households and households in the highest wealth quintile.

Suggested Citation

  • Raju,Dhushyanth & Nguyen,Quynh T., 2014. "Private school participation in Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6897, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6897
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Tahir Andrabi & Jishnu Das & Asim Ijaz Khwaja & Tristan Zajonc, 2011. "Do Value-Added Estimates Add Value? Accounting for Learning Dynamics," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 29-54, July.
    2. Quynh T. Nguyen & Dhushyanth Raju, 2015. "Private School Participation in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 20(1), pages 1-46, Jan-June.
    3. Asadullah, M. Niaz, 2009. "Returns to private and public education in Bangladesh and Pakistan: A comparative analysis," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 77-86, January.
    4. Monazza Aslam, 2003. "The Determinants of Student Achievement in Government and Private Schools in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 841-876.
    5. Monazza Aslam, 2009. "The relative effectiveness of government and private schools in Pakistan: are girls worse off?," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 329-354.
    6. Das, Jishnu & Pandey, Priyanka & Zajonc, Tristan, 2006. "Learning levels and gaps in Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4067, The World Bank.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Zainab Iftikhar, 2018. "The effect of norms on fertility and its implications for the quantity-quality trade-off in Pakistan," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2018014, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    2. Barrera-Osorio,Felipe & Blakeslee,David S. & Hoover,Matthew & Linden,Leigh & Raju,Dhushyanth & Ryan,Stephen P., 2017. "Delivering education to the underserved through a public-private partnership program in Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 8177, The World Bank.
    3. Quynh T. Nguyen & Dhushyanth Raju, 2015. "Private School Participation in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 20(1), pages 1-46, Jan-June.
    4. Andrabi, Tahir & Das, Jishnu & Khwaja, Asim Ijaz & Ozyurt, Selcuk & Singh, Niharika, 2018. "Upping the Ante: The Equilibrium Effects of Unconditional Grants to Private Schools," Working Paper Series rwp18-019, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    5. repec:lje:journl:v:19:y:2015:i:1:p:1-46 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:eee:injoed:v:60:y:2018:i:c:p:100-112 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Education For All; Primary Education; Secondary Education; Disability; Tertiary Education;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development

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