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The Pro-Trade Effect of Immigration on American Exports During Period 1870 to 1910

  • William K. Hutchinson

    ()

    (Department of Economics, Vanderbilt University)

  • James A. Dunlevy

    ()

    (Department of Economics, Miami University)

This paper examines the impact of a stock of immigrants in the United States on American exports to their home country during the period 1870 to 1910. Our data set spans the exports of 44 commodities to 17 countries observed at 5 year intervals. We use a modified gravity model to examine this immigrant stock-export relationship and find that United States exports were greater to a country due to the presence of immigrants from that country. The estimated strength of the effect is found to have varied across "Old" Europe, "New" Europe, and non-Europe groupings of the trading partner countries. Exports were also generally found to have been greater to other English-speaking countries, and to countries with per capita incomes similar to the United States. This relative per capita income effect became stronger during the latter part of the period, whereas the immigrant stock effect diminished after 1885.

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File URL: http://www.accessecon.com/pubs/VUECON/vu01-w25.pdf
File Function: First version, 2001
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Paper provided by Vanderbilt University Department of Economics in its series Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers with number 0125.

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Date of creation: Oct 2001
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Handle: RePEc:van:wpaper:0125
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/econ/wparchive/index.html

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  1. Alan Deardorff, 1998. "Determinants of Bilateral Trade: Does Gravity Work in a Neoclassical World?," NBER Chapters, in: The Regionalization of the World Economy, pages 7-32 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Keith Head & John Ries, 1998. "Immigration and Trade Creation: Econometric Evidence from Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(1), pages 47-62, February.
  3. Dunlevy, James A. & Hutchinson, William K., 1999. "The Impact of Immigration on American Import Trade in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 59(04), pages 1043-1062, December.
  4. Peter Kennedy, 2003. "A Guide to Econometrics, 5th Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 5, volume 1, number 026261183x, June.
  5. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1989. "The Generalized Gravity Equation, Monopolistic Competition, and the Factor-Proportions Theory in International Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(1), pages 143-53, February.
  6. Dunlevy, James A. & Hutchinson, William K., 2001. "The Pro-Trade Effect of Immigration on American Exports During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries," IZA Discussion Papers 375, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1990. "The Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson Model, the Linder Hypothesis and the Determinants of Bilateral Intra-industry Trade," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(403), pages 1216-29, December.
  8. Dunlevy, James A, 1980. "A Test of the Capacity Pressure Hypothesis within a Simultaneous Equations Model of Export Performance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 62(1), pages 131-35, February.
  9. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1985. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(3), pages 474-81, August.
  10. Robert E. Lipsey, 1963. "Price and Quantity Trends in the Foreign Trade of the United States," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number lips63-1, May.
  11. Haveman, J. & Hummels, D., 1997. "What Can We Learn from Bilateral Trade? Gravity and Beyond," Papers 97-002, Purdue University, Krannert School of Management - Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER).
  12. Raynold, Prosper & A. Dunlevy, James, 1998. "Aggregate Shocks and the Relationship between U.S. Business Cycle Fluctuations and Export Performance," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 13, pages 163-198.
  13. Gould, David M, 1994. "Immigrant Links to the Home Country: Empirical Implications for U.S. Bilateral Trade Flows," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 302-16, May.
  14. Irwin, Douglas A, 1996. "The United States in a New Global Economy? A Century's Perspective," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 41-46, May.
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