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The Pro-Trade Effect of Immigration on American Exports During Period 1870 to 1910

Author

Listed:
  • William K. Hutchinson

    () (Department of Economics, Vanderbilt University)

  • James A. Dunlevy

    () (Department of Economics, Miami University)

Abstract

This paper examines the impact of a stock of immigrants in the United States on American exports to their home country during the period 1870 to 1910. Our data set spans the exports of 44 commodities to 17 countries observed at 5 year intervals. We use a modified gravity model to examine this immigrant stock-export relationship and find that United States exports were greater to a country due to the presence of immigrants from that country. The estimated strength of the effect is found to have varied across "Old" Europe, "New" Europe, and non-Europe groupings of the trading partner countries. Exports were also generally found to have been greater to other English-speaking countries, and to countries with per capita incomes similar to the United States. This relative per capita income effect became stronger during the latter part of the period, whereas the immigrant stock effect diminished after 1885.

Suggested Citation

  • William K. Hutchinson & James A. Dunlevy, 2001. "The Pro-Trade Effect of Immigration on American Exports During Period 1870 to 1910," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0125, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:van:wpaper:0125
    as

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    File URL: http://www.accessecon.com/pubs/VUECON/vu01-w25.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2001
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Eichengreen, Barry & Irwin, Douglas A., 1995. "Trade blocs, currency blocs and the reorientation of world trade in the 1930s," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1-2), pages 1-24, February.
    2. Raynold, Prosper & A. Dunlevy, James, 1998. "Aggregate Shocks and the Relationship between U.S. Business Cycle Fluctuations and Export Performance," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 13, pages 163-198.
    3. Dunlevy, James A, 1980. "A Test of the Capacity Pressure Hypothesis within a Simultaneous Equations Model of Export Performance," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 62(1), pages 131-135, February.
    4. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1989. "The Generalized Gravity Equation, Monopolistic Competition, and the Factor-Proportions Theory in International Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(1), pages 143-153, February.
    5. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1985. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(3), pages 474-481, August.
    6. Dunlevy, James A. & Hutchinson, William K., 1999. "The Impact of Immigration on American Import Trade in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 59(04), pages 1043-1062, December.
    7. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1990. "The Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson Model, the Linder Hypothesis and the Determinants of Bilateral Intra-industry Trade," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(403), pages 1216-1229, December.
    8. Gould, David M, 1994. "Immigrant Links to the Home Country: Empirical Implications for U.S. Bilateral Trade Flows," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 302-316, May.
    9. Irwin, Douglas A, 1996. "The United States in a New Global Economy? A Century's Perspective," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 41-46, May.
    10. Keith Head & John Ries, 1998. "Immigration and Trade Creation: Econometric Evidence from Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(1), pages 47-62, February.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. William K. Hutchinson, 2001. ""Linguistic Distance" as a Determinant of Bilateral Trade," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0130, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics, revised Oct 2003.
    2. David Law & Murat Genç & John Bryant, 2013. "Trade, Diaspora and Migration to New Zealand," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(5), pages 582-606, May.
    3. William K. Hutchinson, 2002. "Does Ease of Communication Increase Trade? Commonality of Language and Bilateral Trade," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0217, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
    4. Lamara Hadjou, 2015. "Does immigration fosters the Algerian exports? A Static and Dynamic Analysis," ERSA conference papers ersa15p7, European Regional Science Association.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gravity; immigration; international trade; networks;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • N71 - Economic History - - Economic History: Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, and Other Services - - - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

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