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Multidimensional and Fuzzy Measures of Poverty and Inequality at National and Regional Level in Mozambique

  • Vincenzo Salvucci


  • Gianni Betti


  • Francesca Gagliardi


This study provides a step-by-step account of how fuzzy measures of non-monetary deprivation and also monetary poverty may be constructed based on survey data such as those from the Mozambican Household Budget Survey 2008-09 (IOF08). For nonmonetary deprivation, six dimensions are identified using explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses, and a weighting system is applied for the aggregation of individual items into the dimension they represent. An application on Mozambique is conducted using the Household Budget Survey 2008-09 (IOF08) data: estimates are provided at national level and also disaggregated at provincial and urban/rural level. Standard errors are provided using a recent methodology based on Jack-knife Repeated Replication. Our results contrast with previous findings based solely on Head Count statistics and give a more complete mapping of poverty in Mozambique. Monetary and non-monetary deprivation seem to have very different distribution patterns, especially when analysed at sub-national level and by area of residence. Disaggregated Head Count statistics produce rankings of provinces and urban/rural areas that greatly differ from estimates based on non-monetary dimensions. In particular, the Northern and Central provinces suffer from non-monetary deprivation significantly more than the South, and the urban/rural deprivation gap widens in favour of urban areas when non-monetary dimensions are considered. Housing conditions and quality, and possession of less affordable durable goods emerge as the most unequally distributed non-monetary dimensions.

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Paper provided by Department of Economics, University of Siena in its series Department of Economics University of Siena with number 649.

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Date of creation: Jul 2012
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Handle: RePEc:usi:wpaper:649
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  1. Duclos, Jean-Yves & Sahn, David & Younger, Stephen D., 2001. "Robust Multidimensional Poverty Comparisons," Cahiers de recherche 0115, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
  2. Klasen, Stephan, 2000. "Measuring Poverty and Deprivation in South Africa," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 46(1), pages 33-58, March.
  3. Atkinson, Tony & Cantillon, Bea & Marlier, Eric & Nolan, Brian, 2002. "Social Indicators: The EU and Social Inclusion," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199253494.
  4. World Bank, 2010. "World Development Report 2010," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 4387.
  5. Bruno Cheli & Gianni Betti, 1999. "Fuzzy analysis of poverty dynamics on an italian pseudo panel 1985-1994," Metron - International Journal of Statistics, Dipartimento di Statistica, Probabilità e Statistiche Applicate - University of Rome, vol. 0(1-2), pages 85-105.
  6. Bourguignon, F. & Chakravarty, S.R., 1998. "The Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty," DELTA Working Papers 98-12, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  7. Kolm, Serge-Christophe, 1977. "Multidimensional Egalitarianisms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 91(1), pages 1-13, February.
  8. A. Atkinson, 2003. "Multidimensional Deprivation: Contrasting Social Welfare and Counting Approaches," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 51-65, April.
  9. Richard Layte & Bertrand Maître & Brian Nolan & Christopher T. Whelan, 1999. "Income, Deprivation and Economic Strain: An Analysis of the European Community Household Panel," Papers WP109, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
  10. Maasoumi, Esfandiar, 1986. "The Measurement and Decomposition of Multi-dimensional Inequality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(4), pages 991-97, July.
  11. Vijay Verma & Gianni Betti, 2011. "Taylor linearization sampling errors and design effects for poverty measures and other complex statistics," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 1549-1576, August.
  12. Tsui Kai-Yuen, 1995. "Multidimensional Generalizations of the Relative and Absolute Inequality Indices: The Atkinson-Kolm-Sen Approach," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 251-265, October.
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