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Country effects in ISSP-1993 environmental data: Comparison of SEM approaches



Structural equation models (SEM) are commonly used to analyze the relationship between variables some of which may be latent, such as individual ``attitude'' to and ``behavior'' concerning specific issues. A number of difficulties arise when we want to compare a large number of groups, each with large sample size, and the manifest variables are distinctly non-normally distributed. Using an specific data set, we evaluate the appropriateness of the following alternative SEM approaches: multiple group versus MIMIC models, continuous versus ordinal variables estimation methods, and normal theory versus non-normal estimation methods. The approaches are applied to the ISSP-1993 Environmental data set, with the purpose of exploring variation in the mean level of variables of ``attitude'' to and ``behavior'' concerning environmental issues and their mutual relationship across countries. Issues of both theoretical and practical relevance arise in the course of this application.

Suggested Citation

  • Pilar Rivera & Albert Satorra, 2000. "Country effects in ISSP-1993 environmental data: Comparison of SEM approaches," Economics Working Papers 458, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  • Handle: RePEc:upf:upfgen:458

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lieberman, Offer, 1997. "The Effect of Nonnormality," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(01), pages 52-78, February.
    2. Bengt Muthén, 1989. "Latent variable modeling in heterogeneous populations," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 54(4), pages 557-585, September.
    3. K. Jöreskog, 1971. "Simultaneous factor analysis in several populations," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 36(4), pages 409-426, December.
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    More about this item


    Structural equation models; factors models; MIMIC models; latent variables; multiple group analysis; non-normality; goodness of fit test; environmental data;

    JEL classification:

    • C10 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - General
    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
    • Q20 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - General
    • Q30 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - General

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