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Rémunération à l’ancienneté et ajustement du marché du travail (Seniority-based Pay and Labour Market Adjustment)

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  • Béjaoui, Ali
  • Montmarquette, Claude

Abstract

(English Abstract Follows) La manière dont le marché du travail s’ajuste au choc démographique est au centre des préoccupations des politiques du marché du travail. En effet, le vieillissement de la population pourrait affecter la capacité de l’économie à s’ajuster, non seulement au choc de vieillissement lui-même, mais aussi aux chocs engendrés par les cycles économiques, le commerce international et les changements technologiques (Kuhn, 2003). La présente étude contribue au débat portant sur la manière dont les entreprises s’ajustent à un environnement devenu de plus en plus turbulent. Entre autres, le salaire à l’ancienneté a été identifié comme l’un des facteurs qui pourraient freiner la capacité des entreprises à s’ajuster au marché, dans un contexte de vieillissement de la main-d’oeuvre. Cette étude se penche sur le recours aux emplois non standards (ou la flexibilité numérique) et l’adoption de la rémunération variable comme stratégies d’évitement du salaire à l’ancienneté. En utilisant des données uniques qui apparient les employeurs et les employés au niveau des établissements, nous avons estimé l’impact de la composition démographique des établissements sur le recours à l’une ou l’autre des stratégies de flexibilisation. Nous concluons que la composition démographique des établissements n’est pas associée à la probabilité de recours à la rémunération variable. Par contre, la proportion des travailleurs âgés (45 ans et plus) dans un établissement est associée positivement à la probabilité de recourir à la flexibilité numérique. De même, une complémentarité entre les deux stratégies de flexibilisation a été mise en évidence. Les implications politiques de ces résultats sont multiples. Si les entreprises continuent à avoir des difficultés à instaurer des systèmes de rémunération flexible, elles continueront de s’ajuster en recourant à la flexibilité numérique. Bien que cette flexibilité ait permis aux travailleurs âgés de combiner le travail avec une retraite progressive, aux femmes de combiner le travail avec les soins des enfants et des parents, et aux jeunes de combiner le travail et les études, elle peut avoir des effets néfastes à long terme. Cette stratégie de flexibilisation peut entraîner, à long terme, un sous investissement dans la formation, un manque d’épargne-retraite ainsi qu’une accentuation des inégalités salariales. Le défi de la nouvelle génération des politiques publiques consiste à identifier le compromis entre les incitatifs et les programmes d’activation qui permettrait d’atteindre un équilibre entre les impératifs économiques (la flexibilité) et les aspirations sociales (la sécurité). *** The labour market’s ability to adjust to the current demographic shock is a central concern for labour market policies. An aging population could affect the economy’s ability to adjust, not only to the aging population shock itself, but also to those associated with the business cycle, international trade and technological changes (Kuhn, 2003). This study contributes to discussions about the ways in which organizations adjust to such an increasingly turbulent environment. Among others, seniority-based pay has been identified as a factor that could potentially hinder an organization’s ability to adjust to the market, within the context of an aging workforce. This study focuses on the use of non-standard jobs (or numerical flexibility) and variable compensation as strategies to avoid seniority-based pay. Using unique data that match employers and employees at the mico level, we investigated the link between the demographic composition of workplaces and the adoption of either or both « flexibilization » strategies. Consequently, we conclude that there is no link between workplace demographics and the adoption of variable compensation. However, a high proportion of older workers (45 years and older) in the workplace is positively related to the use of numerical flexibility. Moreover, a complementarity in the use of both strategies emerged from our study. The implications of these results on policies are numerous. If organizations continue experiencing difficulties in resorting to flexible compensation, they will likely continue to adjust by relying on numerical flexibility. While this type of flexibility allows older workers to ease into retirement gradually, women to cope with both working and caring for children or aging parents, and youths to combine work and studies, it can also have detrimental effects. Over time, this flexibilzation strategy can lead to an underinvestment in training, a lack of savings for retirement and an increase in wage inequalities. The main challenge of the new generation of public policies lies in the identification of an effective compromise between incentives and activation programs that would allow a balance between economic imperatives (flexibility) and social aspirations (security).

Suggested Citation

  • Béjaoui, Ali & Montmarquette, Claude, 2009. "Rémunération à l’ancienneté et ajustement du marché du travail (Seniority-based Pay and Labour Market Adjustment)," CLSSRN working papers clsrn_admin-2009-23, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 13 Mar 2009.
  • Handle: RePEc:ubc:clssrn:clsrn_admin-2009-23
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    File URL: http://www.clsrn.econ.ubc.ca/workingpapers/CLSRN%20Working%20Paper%20no.%2014%20-%20Bejaoui%20and%20Montmarquette.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Booth, Alison L. & Francesconi, Marco, 2000. "Collectivism versus individualism: performance-related pay and union coverage for non-standard workers in Britain," ISER Working Paper Series 2000-35, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    marché du travail; rémunération; flexibilité et sécurité; vieillissement;

    JEL classification:

    • J26 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Retirement; Retirement Policies
    • J33 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
    • J81 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Working Conditions

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