IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Revealing Demand for Nature Experience Using Purchase Data of Equipment and Lodging




In 1967, John Krutilla suggested a relationship between car camping, canoe cruising, and cross-country skiing and induced demand for wild, primitive, and wilderness-related opportunities. Here, the time trend of cross-section parameter estimates of the relationship is examined. Households produce nature experiences using two factors: nature attributes and tools. Tools are equipment and lodging. While many studies have investigated to-site costs of producing nature experiences, on-site costs such as equipment and lodging are studied here by using Consumer Expenditure Survey data for Norway. Income coefficients of household demand for nature services in independent cross-section samples for each year are estimated over the period 1986-95. Proportions of households with non-zero purchase expenditures for equipment are followed from 1975 to 1995. Similar proportions of lodging expenditures are studied from 1986 to 1995. Out of a total of 526 goods in an exhaustive system, 20 goods are singled out and classified as nature experience tools. Two additional non-good expenses are added. Coefficients of demand are estimated for each year by using a tobit structure and a maximum likelihood procedure. While income coefficients of equipment and lodging are quite stable, household size coefficients are not. Both equipment and lodging remain luxury items over the period 1986-1995. Proportions of households with positive purchase expenditure on tools increase over time: In a referendum-by-wallets, nature experience production has received more votes and become more popular.

Suggested Citation

  • Erling Røed Larsen, 2001. "Revealing Demand for Nature Experience Using Purchase Data of Equipment and Lodging," Discussion Papers 305, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:305

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Amemiya, Takeshi, 1973. "Regression Analysis when the Dependent Variable is Truncated Normal," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(6), pages 997-1016, November.
    2. Aasness, Jorgen & Rodseth, Asbjorn, 1983. "Engel curves and systems of demand functions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-3), pages 95-121, January.
    3. Amemiya, Takeshi, 1984. "Tobit models: A survey," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 3-61.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Consumption pattern; environmental valuation; experience production; demand for nature services; willingness-to-pay;

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • C24 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models; Threshold Regression Models
    • D11 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Theory
    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • Q21 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • Q26 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:305. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (L Maasø). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.