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Industrial Scope of Agglomeration Economies in Brazil

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  • Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi

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  • Eduardo A. Haddad, Peter Nijkamp

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Abstract

The tendency towards urbanization in the emerging world accompanied by the constant pursuit for higher productivity prompts an urge for studies aiming at understanding agglomeration economies. In the context of Brazil, a country with extremely high regional disparities, exploring this issue is important not only for private stakeholders, but also for public policy practitioners. In the framework of static agglomeration effects, we investigate the industrial scope of agglomeration economies in Brazil. On the basis of identified registration data covering the whole formal labor market in three distinct years (2004, 2008 and 2012), we estimate separate models for the logarithm of the hourly individual wage for five broad economic sectors (S1 – Manufacturing low-tech, S2 – Manufacturing medium-tech, S3 – Manufacturing high-tech, S4 – Services less-knowledge, and S5 – Services high-knowledge). Different estimation strategies are considered in a two-stage mode: with and without individual fixed effects in the first stage, and with and without instrumental variables for population density in the second stage. The main results indicate that there is not a unique optimal local industrial mix to foster productivity in different technological sectors. Comparing possible theoretical approaches (MAR, Jacobs, Porter) related to combinations of diversity, specialization and competition, we find that for S5 only diversity is significant (and positive), suggesting that a Jacobs’ perspective is rather adequate. For S1, S2 and S4, the MAR framework seems more adequate to explain the underlying patterns. In the case of S3, there are elements from both Marshall’s and Jacobs’ perspectives. These results seem to be robust to different specifications and estimation strategies. Finally, the urbanization economies coefficient appears to be positive and significant for all sectors, ranging from 0.0511 to 0.0940 in different specifications, under the simplest estimation (OLS in the first and the second stages). Ordering these effects between the sectors from the highest to the lowest, we find the following sequence: S3, S1, S5, S4 and S2. This can be considered as evidence that high-tech and low-tech manufacturing sectors benefit more from the urban or metropolitan scale in Brazil, followed by services associated with higher knowledge intensity.

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  • Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi & Eduardo A. Haddad, Peter Nijkamp, 2015. "Industrial Scope of Agglomeration Economies in Brazil," Working Papers, Department of Economics 2015_13, University of São Paulo (FEA-USP).
  • Handle: RePEc:spa:wpaper:2015wpecon13
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    3. Grace Carolina Guevara-Rosero & Stéphane Riou & Corinne Autant-Bernard, 2019. "Agglomeration externalities in Ecuador: do urbanization and tertiarization matter?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 53(5), pages 706-719, May.
    4. Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M. & Pietrostefani, Elisabetta, 2019. "The economic effects of density: A synthesis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 93-107.
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    8. Tan Yigitcanlar & Jamile Sabatini-Marques & Cibele Lorenzi & Nathalia Bernardinetti & Tatiana Schreiner & Ana Fachinelli & Tatiana Wittmann, 2018. "Towards Smart Florianópolis: What Does It Take to Transform a Tourist Island into an Innovation Capital?," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(12), pages 1-32, November.
    9. José M. Gaspar, 2018. "A prospective review on New Economic Geography," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 61(2), pages 237-272, September.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Agglomeration economies; urban scale; productivity;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • R32 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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