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Separation of functions, Collusion and Supervisors Financial Participation

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Abstract

We derive the optimal principal-supervisor-agent relationship in an incomplete contract setting. We show that while having a three-layer structure with full separation of tasks has no efficiency consequence under a complete contract, it becomes crucial under an incomplete contract and can even lead to a result of irrelevance of the contractual incompleteness. When it is not possible to achieve this outcome, managers non-compliance arises as equilibrium behaviour despite the presence of complying supervisors. However, although always more efficient relative to a bilateral structure, the three-layer structure is prone to collusion and renegotiation. We show that the response to such drawback is to involve financially the supervisor into the venture, with the extent of the participation depending on how costly it is to collude and renegotiate the contract terms. Last, we derive the welfare properties of the various contract forms showing that they depend on the relative scarcity of each form of financing (monitoring/non monitoring), on transaction costs of collusion and on the distribution of cash flows relative to the project size. This allows us to derive the conditions for the emergence of a bilateral structure in which the financing and supervisory task are centralised on to the same subject and to argue that riskier firms, with high risk of collusive behaviour, are more likely to be financed by a single monitoring lender and thus face a higher cost of credit.

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  • Anna Maria Cristina Menichini, 2003. "Separation of functions, Collusion and Supervisors Financial Participation," CSEF Working Papers 109, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  • Handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:109
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    1. Roland Strausz, 1997. "Delegation of Monitoring in a Principal-Agent Relationship," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(3), pages 337-357.
    2. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1997. "Financial Intermediation, Loanable Funds, and The Real Sector," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 663-691.
    3. Hart, Oliver, 1995. "Firms, Contracts, and Financial Structure," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288817.
    4. A. Menichini & P. Simmons, "undated". "Can Liars Ever Prosper," Discussion Papers 02/10, Department of Economics, University of York.
    5. Tirole, Jean, 1986. "Hierarchies and Bureaucracies: On the Role of Collusion in Organizations," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(2), pages 181-214, Fall.
    6. Khalil, Fahad & Parigi, Bruno M, 1998. "Loan Size as a Commitment Device," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(1), pages 135-150, February.
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