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From the Chiang Mai Initiative to an Asian Monetary Fund

Author

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  • Kawai, Masahiro

    (Asian Development Bank Institute)

Abstract

Following the 1997–1998 Asian financial crisis, financial authorities in ASEAN+3 embarked on several new initiatives for East Asia's financial cooperation, including: (i) regional economic surveillance led by the Economic Review and Policy Dialogue (ERPD); (ii) a regional liquidity support facility, called the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI); and (iii) local-currency bond market development. The global financial crisis of 2007–2009 demonstrated the need to further strengthen East Asian financial cooperation. This paper summarizes and evaluates the progress of regional financial cooperation, particularly the ERPD, the CMI and its subsequent multilateralization (CMIM), and the ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic Research Office (AMRO). It identifies the challenges in strengthening the CMIM, ERPD, and AMRO and suggests that the CMIM and AMRO be transformed into an Asian monetary fund (AMF). The paper argues that for an AMF to emerge, ASEAN+3 authorities need to: (i) contribute part of their foreign exchange reserves to the fund; (ii) establish a secretariat in charge of all aspects of the CMIM, including its activation; and (iii) delink the CMIM from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) programs by upgrading their capacity to conduct regional surveillance, formulate independent conditionality associated with crisis lending, and monitor policy and economic performance. In the transition period, eligible member countries should be allowed to have more flexible access to the CMIM facility. The CMIM and AMRO should work with the IMF to promote East Asian financial stability, but at the same time the IMF needs to undertake significant operational and governance reforms so that it regains the trust of emerging economy members in the region.

Suggested Citation

  • Kawai, Masahiro, 2015. "From the Chiang Mai Initiative to an Asian Monetary Fund," ADBI Working Papers 527, Asian Development Bank Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:adbiwp:0527
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. E. Kohlscheen & M. P. Taylor, 2008. "International liquidity swaps: is the Chiang Mai Initiative pooling reserves efficiently?," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(4), pages 323-332.
    2. Mario Lamberte & Peter J. Morgan, 2012. "Regional and Global Monetary Cooperation," Finance Working Papers 23190, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    3. Iwan J. Azis, 2012. "Asian Regional Financial Safety Nets? Don't Hold Your Breath," Public Policy Review, Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Finance Japan, vol. 8(3), pages 321-340, August.
    4. Charles Adams & Hwee Chow, 2009. "Asian Currency Baskets: An Answer in Search of a Question?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 403-423, July.
    5. Chalongphob SUSSANGKARN, 2011. "Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization: Origin, Development, and Outlook," Asian Economic Policy Review, Japan Center for Economic Research, vol. 6(2), pages 203-220, December.
    6. Kawai, Masahiro, 2005. "East Asian economic regionalism: progress and challenges," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 29-55, February.
    7. C. Randall Henning, 2011. "Coordinating Regional and Multilateral Financial Institutions," Working Paper Series WP11-9, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    8. C. Randall Henning, 2009. "The Future of the Chiang Mai Initiative: An Asian Monetary Fund?," Policy Briefs PB09-5, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hans Genberg, "undated". "Financial Integration in ASIA," Working Papers wp22, South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN) Research and Training Centre.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    chiang mai initiative; asian monetary fund; bond market development; crisis lending; multilateralization;

    JEL classification:

    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration

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