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Myanmar Human Capital Development, Employment, and Labor Markets


  • Tanaka, Sakiko

    () (Asian Development Bank)

  • Spohr, Christopher

    () (Asian Development Bank)

  • D’Amico, Sandra

    () (BDLINK Cambodia)


Improvement in human capital is essential for rapid, sustainable, and inclusive economic growth in Myanmar. Investments in health and education—including technical and vocational education and training—are essential to engineer a productive labor force that can contribute to and benefit from growth opportunities, while equipping the country’s young population to participate in the country’s dramatic socioeconomic transformation. This paper focuses on developing human capital, with an emphasis on health and education in the context of employment growth and an employment-enabling environment. While awaiting the release of up-to-date data and the outcome of broad ongoing legislative reforms, the paper draws on extensive analysis of available data, including the Integrated Household Living Condition Survey 2009–2010, nationally led assessments, and consultations with the government and a variety of stakeholders to provide a snapshot of important recent developments that are helping to shape the transformation.

Suggested Citation

  • Tanaka, Sakiko & Spohr, Christopher & D’Amico, Sandra, 2015. "Myanmar Human Capital Development, Employment, and Labor Markets," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 469, Asian Development Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:adbewp:0469

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    education; employment; health; Myanmar; technical and vocational education and training (TVET);

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • I15 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Economic Development
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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