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Les politiques d’innovation françaises et la place des PME : une revue historique FRENCH INNOVATION POLICIES AND THE ROLE OF SMES: A HISTORICAL REVIEW

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  • Zeting LIU

    (RRI)

Abstract

La France, comme d’autres pays, cherche à valoriser son excellence scientifique et à augmenter la compétitivité de ses petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) pour tirer plein profit de l’innovation et soutenir la croissance économique et l’emploi. Il n’y a pas, ni en France ni ailleurs, une politique spécifique de soutien à l’innovation dans les PME mais des politiques scientifiques et de la recherche industrielle, en particulier en faveur des petites entreprises, et des politiques d’innovation, dans lesquelles peuvent être identifiées des mesures spécifiques visant à promouvoir le développement technologique et l’innovation dans les PME. Cette étude s’intéresse à la façon dont en France, à travers les différentes époques, ces politiques publiques sont définies et organisées et s’interroge sur l’efficacité et l’impact des interventions publiques dans le développement de capacité d’innovation des PME françaises. Elle se déroule en trois parties, en respectant une chronologie historique correspondant aux grandes étapes de l’évolution des politiques depuis les années 1960-1970 jusqu’à présent. Ces trois parties analytiques sont enrichies par l’analyse du cas de l’Agence nationale de valorisation de la recherche (Anvar). A la fin de ce travail, nous suggérons que la France entre dans une phase critique où des réformes structurelles doivent être menées pour assurer le développement de la compétitivité des PME et de l’innovation. France, like other countries, seeks to promote its scientific excellence and to increase the competitiveness of its small and medium enterprises (SMEs) by taking full advantage of innovation to sustain economic growth and employment. In France as in other countries, there is no specific policy to support innovation in SMEs but both science and industrial research policies, especially for small businesses, and innovation policies, in which can be identified specific measures to promote technological development and innovation in SMEs. This study focuses on "how", in France, such public policies are defined and organized through different periods and it questions the effectiveness and impact of public interventions aimed at developing French SMEs’ innovation capacity. The study is divided in three parts, following a historical chronology corresponding to major stages of political evolution from the years 1960-1970 till now. These three analytical parts are enriched by a case analysis of the French National Agency for Valorisation of the Research (Anvar). At the end of this study, we suggest that France is now entering a critical phase in which structural reforms have to be undertaken in order to ensure French SMEs’ innovation and competitiveness.Length: 26 pages

Suggested Citation

  • Zeting LIU, 2011. "Les politiques d’innovation françaises et la place des PME : une revue historique FRENCH INNOVATION POLICIES AND THE ROLE OF SMES: A HISTORICAL REVIEW," Working Papers 23, Réseau de Recherche sur l’Innovation. / Research Network on Innovation.
  • Handle: RePEc:rii:rridoc:23
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    politique scientifique et de la recherche; politique de l’innovation; politique industrielle; valorisation; Anvar; PME; système d’innovation; pôles industrial policy; scientific and research policy; innovation policy; commercialization of research; Anvar; systems of innovation; clusters; SMEs;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance

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