IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Financial exclusion and the cost of incomplete participation


  • Botti, Fabrizio
  • Bollino, Carlo Andrea


Economic and social implications of the access to financial services both in developed and in developing countries have increasingly promoted the debate around the issue of considering “financial inclusion” as a public good, according to potential positive externalities associated to greater financial participation. If the role of financial inclusion as a public good, and the enhanced efficiency of public policy following a greater participation in the financial markets are established in an abstract way, a numerical estimate of the potential costs of incomplete participation in the financial system is still not explicitly addressed in the literature. The study designs a simplified approach for the calculation of the cost of financial exclusion through the identification of a general functional form representing the cost of incomplete participation encountered by financial actors or by the public policy aimed at alleviating financial exclusion. Such a cost is estimated parametrically according to alternative subgroups of financial institutions with different levels of depth of outreach corresponding to distinct orientation toward individuals excluded from the mainstream financial sector. Calculations show the role of financial exclusion in generating inefficiencies that raise the cost of accessing to financial transactions for all the participating individuals, or, in a policy perspective, the cost to tackle incomplete participation.

Suggested Citation

  • Botti, Fabrizio & Bollino, Carlo Andrea, 2012. "Financial exclusion and the cost of incomplete participation," MPRA Paper 44065, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:44065

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. James Devlin, 2005. "A Detailed Study of Financial Exclusion in the UK," Journal of Consumer Policy, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 75-108, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Financial inclusion; financial exclusion; microfinance;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:44065. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.