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Economic Evaluation of Pesticide Use Externalities in the Cotton Zones of Punjab, Pakistan


  • Khan, M. Azeem
  • Iqbal, Muhammad
  • Ahmad, Iftikhar
  • Soomro, Manzoor


The crop protection strategy in Pakistan is almost entirely based on pesticide use whereas development of integrated pest management (IPM) based technologies is in its initial phases of scrutiny as well as implementation. The inefficient use of chemicals has resulted in environmental pollution and sub-optimal returns to the society on the costly investments. This study estimates the social cost of pesticide use and suggests appropriate guidelines for regulating the safe use of pesticides. An overall economic evaluation of the externalities for the current pesticide use levels shows that external costs are quite higher than the currently paid price at the farm gate level. The environmental degradation and public health costs inflicted on the society due to the inefficient chemical use on cotton crop amounts to twelve thousand million rupees. The reduced reliance on crop protection through chemical methods seems inevitable for a sustainable and healthy crop production.

Suggested Citation

  • Khan, M. Azeem & Iqbal, Muhammad & Ahmad, Iftikhar & Soomro, Manzoor, 2002. "Economic Evaluation of Pesticide Use Externalities in the Cotton Zones of Punjab, Pakistan," MPRA Paper 2688, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2002.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:2688

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    Cited by:

    1. Ahmad, Munir & Iqbal, Muhammad, 2004. "Science and Technology Based Agriculture Vision of Pakistan and Prospects of Growth," MPRA Paper 57441, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2004.
    2. Ghimire, Narishwar & Woodward, Richard T., 2013. "Under- and over-use of pesticides: An international analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 73-81.
    3. Ahmad, Munir & Croraton, Caesar & Qayyum, Abdul & Iqbal, Muhammad & Dorosh, Paul, 2005. "Impact of Domestic Policies towards Agricultural Trade Liberalization and Market Reform on Food Security in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 72932, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Kouser, Shahzad & Qaim, Matin, 2012. "Valuing financial, health and environmental benefits of Bt cotton in Pakistan," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126544, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Muhammad Azeem Khan & Muhammad Iqbal, 2005. "Sustainable Cotton Production Through Skill Development among Farmers: Evidence from Khairpur District of Sindh, Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 695-716.
    6. Muhammad Khan, 2010. "Using the Health Belief Model to Understand Pesticide Use Decisions," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 49(4), pages 941-956.
    7. Muhammad Azeem Khan & M. Iqbal & Iftikhar Ahmad, 2007. "Environment-Friendly Cotton Production through Implementing Integrated Pest Management Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(4), pages 1119-1135.
    8. Shahzad Kouser & Matin Qaim, 2012. "Valuing financial, health, and environmental benefits of Bt cotton in Pakistan," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 105, Courant Research Centre PEG.

    More about this item


    economic evaluation; externalities; pesticide use; social cost; crop protection; Punjab; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • Q51 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Valuation of Environmental Effects


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