Equity and Efficiency Measures of Tax-Transfer Systems: Some Evidence for New Zealand
The redistributive and efficiency aspects of personal taxes are of particular interest to both economists and governments designing tax reforms. Traditionally however, the numerous analytical tools available to calculate distributional and efficiency effects of taxes and transfers are not widely used in tax policy advice. This partly reflects the computational complexities involved in calculating some of those measures and the need for simplicity, and transparency of underlying assumptions, when presenting policy advice. This paper makes two contributions to the analysis of the equity and efficiency effects of tax policy. Firstly, it applies the methodologies proposed by economists to measure equity and efficiency outcomes of taxes to provide some evidence for the New Zealand income tax and transfer system. This makes use of Treasury’s microsimulation model, TaxWell. Secondly, the paper examines a database of low-income New Zealand taxpayers. A decomposition by individual and household characteristics shows that different groups of low income taxpayers can be affected quite differently by various aspects of the tax/transfer system. In particular, tax-free zones do not appear well targeted to help those most in need.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2008|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: New Zealand Treasury, PO Box 3724, Wellington, New Zealand|
Phone: +64-4-472 2733
Fax: +64-4-473 0982
Web page: http://www.treasury.govt.nz
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- W. Erwin Diewert & Denis A. Lawrence, 1996. "The Deadweight Costs of Taxation in New Zealand," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(s1), pages 658-673, April.
- John Creedy, 2003.
"Labour Supply Incentives in Alternative Tax and Transfer Schemes: A Diagrammatic Introduction,"
Treasury Working Paper Series
03/08, New Zealand Treasury.
- John Creedy, 2004. "Labour Supply Incentives in Alternative Tax and Transfer Schemes: A Diagrammatic Introduction," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 37(2), pages 230-241, 06.
- Dr Justin van de Ven, 2003.
"Taxation, Reranking and Equivalence Scales,"
NIESR Discussion Papers
227, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
- Creedy, J. & van de Ven, J., 2001. "Taxation, Reranking and Equivalence Scales," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 782, The University of Melbourne.
- Justin van de Ven & John Creedy, 2003. "Taxation, Reranking and Equivalence Scales," Treasury Working Paper Series 03/11, New Zealand Treasury.
- Auerbach, Alan J., 1985.
"The theory of excess burden and optimal taxation,"
Handbook of Public Economics,
in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 61-127
- Rosanna Scutella & Guyonne Kalb, 2004.
"New Zealand Labour Supply from 1991-2001: an analysis based on a discrete choice structural utility model,"
Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings
182, Econometric Society.
- Guyonne Kalb & Rosanna Scutella, 2003. "New Zealand Labour Supply from 1991-2001: An Analysis Based on a Discrete Choice Structural Utility Model," Treasury Working Paper Series 03/23, New Zealand Treasury.
- Alex Bakker & John Creedy, 1999. "Macroeconomic variables and income inequality in New Zealand: An exploration using conditional mixture distributions," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(2), pages 59-79.
- John Creedy & Cath Sleeman, 2005.
"Adult equivalence scales, inequality and poverty,"
New Zealand Economic Papers,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 51-81.
- Dean Hyslop & Dave Maré, 2001. "Understanding Changes in the Distribution of Household Incomes in New Zealand Between 1983-86 and 1995-98," Treasury Working Paper Series 01/21, New Zealand Treasury.
- John Creedy & Alan S. Duncan & Mark Harris & Rosanna Scutella, 2002. "Microsimulation Modelling of Taxation and the Labour Market," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 2796.
- Kakwani, Nanok C, 1977. "Measurement of Tax Progressivity: An International Comparison," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 87(345), pages 71-80, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nzt:nztwps:08/04. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Web and Publishing Team, The Treasury)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.