IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/4702.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Portfolio Inefficiency and the Cross-Section of Expected Returns

Author

Listed:
  • Shmuel Kandel
  • Robert F. Stambaugh

Abstract

A plot of expected returns versus betas obeys virtually no relation to an inefficient index portfolio's mean-variance location. If the index portfolio is inefficient, then the coefficients and R- squared from an ordinary-least-squares regression of expected returns on betas can equal essentially any desired values. The mean-variance location of the index does determine the properties of a cross- sectional mean-beta relation fitted by generalized least squares (GLS). As the index portfolio moves closer to exact efficiency, the GLS mean-beta relation moves closer to the exact linear relation corresponding to an efficient portfolio with the same variance. The goodness-of-fit for the GLS regression is the index portfolio's squared relative efficiency, which measures closeness to efficiency in mean-variance space.

Suggested Citation

  • Shmuel Kandel & Robert F. Stambaugh, 1994. "Portfolio Inefficiency and the Cross-Section of Expected Returns," NBER Working Papers 4702, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4702
    Note: AP
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w4702.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. "The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-465, June.
    2. Kandel, Shmuel & Stambaugh, Robert F, 1989. "A Mean-Variance Framework for Tests of Asset Pricing Models," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 2(2), pages 125-156.
    3. Roll, Richard, 1977. "A critique of the asset pricing theory's tests Part I: On past and potential testability of the theory," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 129-176, March.
    4. Shanken, Jay, 1992. "On the Estimation of Beta-Pricing Models," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 5(1), pages 1-33.
    5. Shanken, Jay, 1985. "Multivariate tests of the zero-beta CAPM," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 327-348, September.
    6. Kandel, Shmuel & Stambaugh, Robert F., 1987. "On correlations and inferences about mean-variance efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 61-90, March.
    7. Ravi Jagannathan & Zhenyu Wang, 1993. "The CAPM is alive and well," Staff Report 165, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    8. Ross, Stephen A, 1977. "The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), Short-Sale Restrictions and Related Issues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(1), pages 177-183, March.
    9. Shanken, Jay, 1987. "Multivariate proxies and asset pricing relations : Living with the Roll critique," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 91-110, March.
    10. Roll, Richard, 1985. "A note on the geometry of Shanken's CSR T2 test for mean/variance efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 349-357, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Grauer, Robert R. & Janmaat, Johannus A., 2009. "On the power of cross-sectional and multivariate tests of the CAPM," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 775-787, May.
    2. Wang, Zhenyu, 1998. "Efficiency loss and constraints on portfolio holdings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 359-375, June.
    3. Wayne E. Ferson & Ravi Jagannathan, 1996. "Econometric evaluation of asset pricing models," Staff Report 206, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    4. Han, Xing & Li, Kai & Li, Youwei, 2020. "Investor overconfidence and the security market line: New evidence from China," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 117(C).
    5. Enrique Sentana, 1993. "The econometrics of the stock market II: asset pricing," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 17(3), pages 421-444, September.
    6. Martin Lettau & Sydney Ludvigson, 2001. "Resurrecting the (C)CAPM: A Cross-Sectional Test When Risk Premia Are Time-Varying," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(6), pages 1238-1287, December.
    7. Hansen, Lars Peter & Jagannathan, Ravi, 1997. "Assessing Specification Errors in Stochastic Discount Factor Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 557-590, June.
    8. Simmet Anastasia & Pohlmeier Winfried, 2020. "The CAPM with Measurement Error: ‘There’s life in the old dog yet!’," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 240(4), pages 417-453, August.
    9. Lewellen, Jonathan & Nagel, Stefan & Shanken, Jay, 2010. "A skeptical appraisal of asset pricing tests," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 175-194, May.
    10. De Giorgi, Enrico G. & Post, Thierry & Yalçın, Atakan, 2019. "A concave security market line," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 65-81.
    11. Shanken, Jay & Zhou, Guofu, 2007. "Estimating and testing beta pricing models: Alternative methods and their performance in simulations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 40-86, April.
    12. Balvers, Ronald J. & Huang, Dayong, 2009. "Evaluation of linear asset pricing models by implied portfolio performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1586-1596, September.
    13. Kandel, Shmuel & McCulloch, Robert & Stambaugh, Robert F, 1995. "Bayesian Inference and Portfolio Efficiency," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(1), pages 1-53.
    14. Choi, Yoon K., 1995. "The sensitivity in tests of the efficiency of a portfolio and portfolio performance measurement," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 187-206.
    15. Adrian, Tobias & Crump, Richard K. & Moench, Emanuel, 2015. "Regression-based estimation of dynamic asset pricing models," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(2), pages 211-244.
    16. Khalaf, Lynda & Schaller, Huntley, 2016. "Identification and inference in two-pass asset pricing models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 165-177.
    17. Kim, Soohun & Skoulakis, Georgios, 2018. "Ex-post risk premia estimation and asset pricing tests using large cross sections: The regression-calibration approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 204(2), pages 159-188.
    18. Wayne E. Ferson & Andrew F. Siegel, 2006. "Testing Portfolio Efficiency with Conditioning Information," NBER Working Papers 12098, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Shanken, Jay & Weinstein, Mark I., 2006. "Economic forces and the stock market revisited," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 129-144, March.
    20. Qi Shi & Bin Li & Adrian (Wai Kong) Cheung & Richard Chung, 2017. "Augmenting the intertemporal CAPM with inflation: Further evidence from alternative models," Australian Journal of Management, Australian School of Business, vol. 42(4), pages 653-672, November.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4702. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.