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The CAPM is alive and well

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  • Ravi Jagannathan
  • Zhenyu Wang

Abstract

In empirical studies of the CAPM, it is commonly assumed that, (a) the return to the value-weighted portfolio of all stocks is a reasonable proxy for the return on the market portfolio of all assets in the economy, and (b) betas of assets remain constant over time. Under these assumptions, Fama and French (1992) find that the relation between average return and beta is flat. We argue that these two auxiliary assumptions are not reasonable. We demonstrate that when these assumptions are relaxed, the empirical support for the CAPM is very strong. When human capital is also included in measuring wealth, the CAPM is able to explain 28% of the cross sectional variation in average returns in the 100 portfolios studied by Fama and French. When, in addition, betas are allowed to vary over the business cycle, the CAPM is able to explain 57%. More important, relative size does not explain what is left unexplained after taking sampling errors into account.

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  • Ravi Jagannathan & Zhenyu Wang, 1993. "The CAPM is alive and well," Staff Report 165, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedmsr:165
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    Cited by:

    1. David Blake, 2004. "The impact of wealth on consumption and retirement behaviour in the UK," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(8), pages 555-576.
    2. Harvey, Campbell R, 1995. "Predictable Risk and Returns in Emerging Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(3), pages 773-816.
    3. Julian di Giovanni & Akito Matsumoto, 2011. "The Value of Human Capital Wealth," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd10-174, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    4. Wang, Zhenyu, 1998. "Efficiency loss and constraints on portfolio holdings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 359-375, June.
    5. Basak, Suleyman, 1999. "On the fluctuations in consumption and market returns in the presence of labor and human capital: An equilibrium analysis," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 1029-1064, June.
    6. Daniel, Kent & Titman, Sheridan, 1997. " Evidence on the Characteristics of Cross Sectional Variation in Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 1-33, March.
    7. Hansen, Lars Peter & Jagannathan, Ravi, 1997. " Assessing Specification Errors in Stochastic Discount Factor Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 557-590, June.
    8. John Y. Campbell & John H. Cochrane, 1994. "By Force of Habit: A Consumption-Based Explanation of Aggregate Stock Market Behavior," CRSP working papers 412, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
    9. Bottazzi, Laura & Pesenti, Paolo & van Wincoop, Eric, 1996. "Wages, profits and the international portfolio puzzle," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 219-254, February.
    10. Syed ali, Raza & Syed tehseen, jawaid & Imtiaz, arif & Fahim, qazi, 2011. "Validity of capital asset pricing model: evidence from Karachi stock exchange," MPRA Paper 32737, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Syed Raza & Syed Jawaid, 2014. "Foreign capital inflows, economic growth and stock market capitalization in Asian countries: an ARDL bound testing approach," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 375-385, January.
    12. Joliet, Robert & Hubner, Georges, 2008. "Corporate international diversification and the cost of equity: European evidence," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 102-123, February.
    13. Wayne E. Ferson & Ravi Jagannathan, 1996. "Econometric evaluation of asset pricing models," Staff Report 206, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    14. Levy, Moshe, 2007. "Conditions for a CAPM equilibrium with positive prices," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 137(1), pages 404-415, November.
    15. Choi, Yoon K., 1995. "The sensitivity in tests of the efficiency of a portfolio and portfolio performance measurement," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 187-206.
    16. Ravi Jagannathan & Ellen R. McGrattan, 1995. "The CAPM debate," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Fall, pages 2-17.
    17. Levy, Moshe & Ritov, Yaacov, 2001. "Portfolio Optimization with Many Assets: The Importance of Short-Selling," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt41x4t67m, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
    18. Patricio Arrau & Rómulo Chumacero, 1998. "Tamaño de los Fondos de Pensiones en Chile y su Desempeño Financiero," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 35(105), pages 205-236.
    19. John H. Boyd & Jian Hu & Ravi Jagannathan, 2005. "The Stock Market's Reaction to Unemployment News: Why Bad News Is Usually Good for Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 649-672, April.
    20. Saffi, Pedro, 2008. "Expected returns and liquidity risk: Does entrepreneurial income matter?," IESE Research Papers D/749, IESE Business School.
    21. Datar, Vinay T. & Y. Naik, Narayan & Radcliffe, Robert, 1998. "Liquidity and stock returns: An alternative test," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 203-219, August.
    22. Kandel, Shmuel & Stambaugh, Robert F, 1995. " Portfolio Inefficiency and the Cross-Section of Expected Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 157-184, March.
    23. Douch, Mohamed & Bouaddi, Mohammed, 2010. "EQUITY Premium Puzzle in a Data-Rich Environment," MPRA Paper 29440, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    Keywords

    Capital ; Stock - Prices;

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