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Credit Rationing and Effective Supply Failures

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  • Alan S. Blinder

Abstract

This paper presents two macro models in which central bank policy has real effects on the supply side of the economy due to credit rationing. In each model, there are two possible regimes, depending on whether credit is or is not rationed. Starting from an unrationed equilibrium, either a large enough contraction of bank reserves or a large enough rise in aggregate demand can lead to rationing. Monetary (fiscal) policy is shown to be more (less) powerful when there is rationing than when there is not. In the first model, credit rationing reduces working capital. There is a failure of effective supply in that credit-starved firms must reduce production below national supply. The resulting excess demand in the goods market may in turn drive prices up and reduce the real supply of credit further, leading to further reductions in supply and a stagflationary spiral. In the second model, credit rationing reduces investment, which cuts into both aggregate demand and supply. Despite the effect on demand, stagflationary instability is still possible. A rise in government spending crowds out investment in the rationed regime but crowds in investment in the unrationed regime.

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  • Alan S. Blinder, 1985. "Credit Rationing and Effective Supply Failures," NBER Working Papers 1619, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1619
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Blinder, Alan S & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1983. "Money, Credit Constraints, and Economic Activity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(2), pages 297-302, May.
    2. Blinder, Alan S, 1982. "Inventories and Sticky Prices: More on the Microfoundations of Macroeconomics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 334-348, June.
    3. Bernanke, Ben S, 1981. "Bankruptcy, Liquidity, and Recession," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 155-159, May.
    4. Blinder, Alan S. & Fischer, Stanley, 1981. "Inventories, rational expectations, and the business cycle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 277-304.
    5. Honkapohja, Seppo & Ito, Takatoshi, 1983. "Stability with regime switching," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 22-48, February.
    6. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    7. King, Robert G & Plosser, Charles I, 1984. "Money, Credit, and Prices in a Real Business Cycle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 363-380, June.
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