Limited Capital Market Participation and Human Capital Risk
The non-tradability of human capital is often cited for the failure of traditional asset pricing theory to explain agents' portfolio holdings. In this paper we argue that the opposite might be true --- traditional models might not be able to explain agent portfolio holdings because they do not explicitly account for the fact that human capital does trade (in the form of labor contracts). We derive wages endogenously as part of a dynamic equilibrium in a production economy. Risk is shared in labor markets because firms write bilateral labor contracts that insure workers, allowing agents to achieve a Pareto optimal allocation even when the span of asset markets is restricted to just stocks and bonds. Capital markets facilitate this risk sharing because it is there that firms offload the labor market risk they assumed from workers. In effect, by investing in capital markets investors provide insurance to wage earners who then optimally choose not to participate in capital markets. The model can produce some of the most important stylized facts in asset pricing: (1) limited asset market participation, (2) the seemingly high equity risk premium, (3) the very large disparity in the volatility of consumption and the volatility of asset prices, and (4) the time dependent correlation between consumption growth and asset returns.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as Jonathan B. Berk & Johan Walden, 2013. "Limited Capital Market Participation and Human Capital Risk," Review of Asset Pricing Studies, vol 3(1), pages 1-37.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Heaton, John & Lucas, Deborah J, 1996.
"Evaluating the Effects of Incomplete Markets on Risk Sharing and Asset Pricing,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(3), pages 443-87, June.
- John Heaton & Deborah Lucas, 1993. "Evaluating the Effects of Incomplete Markets on Risk Sharing and Asset Pricing," NBER Working Papers 4249, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- R. Mehra & E. Prescott, 2010.
"The equity premium: a puzzle,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
1401, David K. Levine.
- John Y. Campbell, 1993.
"Understanding Risk and Return,"
NBER Working Papers
4554, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John Y. Campbell, 1995. "Understanding Risk and Return," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1711, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Campbell, John, 1996. "Understanding Risk and Return," Scholarly Articles 3153293, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Hall, Robert E, 1982.
"The Importance of Lifetime Jobs in the U.S. Economy,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 72(4), pages 716-24, September.
- Robert E. Hall, 1980. "The Importance of Lifetime Jobs in the U.S. Economy," NBER Working Papers 0560, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Luigi Guiso & Michael Haliassos & Tullio Jappelli, 2003.
"Household stockholding in Europe: where do we stand and where do we go?,"
CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 18(36), pages 123-170, 04.
- Guiso, Luigi & Haliassos, Michalis & Jappelli, Tullio, 2003. "Household Stockholding in Europe: Where Do We Stand, and Where Do We Go?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3694, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Luigi Guiso & Michael Haliassos & Tullio Jappelli, 2002. "Household Stockholding in Europe: Where Do We Stand and Where Do We Go?," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 0209, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
- Luigi Guiso & Michael Haliassos & Tullio Jappelli, 2002. "Household Stockholding in Europe: Where Do We Stand and Where Do We Go?," CSEF Working Papers 88, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
- Jagannathan, Ravi & Wang, Zhenyu, 1996.
" The Conditional CAPM and the Cross-Section of Expected Returns,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 3-53, March.
- Ravi Jagannathan & Zhenyu Wang, 1996. "The conditional CAPM and the cross-section of expected returns," Staff Report 208, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Harrison Hong & Jeffrey D. Kubik & Jeremy C. Stein, 2004.
"Social Interaction and Stock-Market Participation,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 59(1), pages 137-163, 02.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & Stephen P. Zeldes, 1990.
"The Consumption of Stockholders and Non-Stockholders,"
NBER Working Papers
3402, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mankiw, N. Gregory & Zeldes, Stephen P., 1991. "The consumption of stockholders and nonstockholders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 97-112, March.
- Mankiw, N.G. & Zeldes, S.P., 1990. "The Consumption Of Stockholders And Non-Stockholders," Weiss Center Working Papers 23-90, Wharton School - Weiss Center for International Financial Research.
- Charlotte Christiansen & Juanna Schröter Joensen & Jesper Rangvid, 2007.
"Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?,"
CREATES Research Papers
2007-08, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
- Tano Santos & Pietro Veronesi, 2006. "Labor Income and Predictable Stock Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(1), pages 1-44.
- Hanno Lustig & Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh & Adrien Verdelhan, 2008.
"The Wealth-Consumption Ratio,"
NBER Working Papers
13896, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hanno Lustig & Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh, 2008.
"The Returns on Human Capital: Good News on Wall Street is Bad News on Main Street,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(5), pages 2097-2137, September.
- Hanno Lustig & Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh, 2005. "The Returns on Human Capital: Good News on Wall Street is Bad News on Main Street," NBER Working Papers 11564, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jean-Pierre Danthine & John B. Donaldson, 2002. "Labour Relations and Asset Returns," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(1), pages 41-64.
- Fama, Eugene F. & Schwert, G. William, 1977. "Human capital and capital market equilibrium," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 95-125, January.
- Moscarini, Giuseppe & Thomsson, Kaj, 2006. "Occupational and Job Mobility in the US," Working Papers 19, Yale University, Department of Economics.
- Milton Harris & Bengt Holmstrom, 1982. "A Theory of Wage Dynamics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(3), pages 315-333.
- Kihlstrom, Richard E & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1979. "A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 719-48, August.
- Gregory R. Duffee, 2005. "Time Variation in the Covariance between Stock Returns and Consumption Growth," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(4), pages 1673-1712, 08.
- Haliassos, Michael & Bertaut, Carol C, 1995. "Why Do So Few Hold Stocks?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(432), pages 1110-29, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15709. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.