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R&D, Production Structure, and Productivity Growth in the U.S., Japaneseand German Manufacturing Sectors


  • Pierre A. Mohnen
  • M. Ishaq Nadiri
  • Ingmar R. Prucha


The paper analyzes the production structure and the demand for inputs in three major industrialized countries, the U.S., Japan and Germany. A dynamic factor demand model with two variable inputs (labor and energy)and two quasi-fixed inputs (capital and R&D) is derived directly from an intertemporal cost-minimization problem formulated in discrete time. Adjustment costs are explicitly specified. The model is estimated for the manufacturing sector of the three countries using annual data from 1965 to 1977. Particular attention is given to the role of R&D. For all countries the rate of return on R&D is found to be higher than that on capital. Their respective magnitudes are similar across countries.We find considerable differences in factor demand schedules; we also find that for all countries the speed of adjustment for capital is higher than that of R&D. Adjustment costs are of importance in the demand equations for capital and R&D, but play a minor role in the decomposition of total factor productivity growth.

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  • Pierre A. Mohnen & M. Ishaq Nadiri & Ingmar R. Prucha, 1984. "R&D, Production Structure, and Productivity Growth in the U.S., Japaneseand German Manufacturing Sectors," NBER Working Papers 1264, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1264
    Note: PR

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nadiri, M Ishaq & Rosen, Sherwin, 1969. "Interrelated Factor Demand Functions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(4), pages 457-471, Part I Se.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ann P. Bartel & Frank R. Lichtenberg, 1985. "The Comparative Advantage of Educated Workers in Implementing New Technology: Some Empirical Evidence," NBER Working Papers 1718, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Bester, Helmut & Petrakis, Emmanuel, 2003. "Wages and productivity growth in a competitive industry," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 109(1), pages 52-69, March.
    3. Bester, Helmut & Petrakis, Emmanuel, 2004. "Wages and productivity growth in a dynamic monopoly," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 83-100, January.
    4. Bernstein, J.I. & Nadiri, M.I., 1993. "Production, Financial Structure and Productivity Growth in U.S. Manufacturing," Working Papers 93-10, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
    5. Carmela Martin & Francisco J. Velazquez., 2001. "An Assessment of Real Convergence of Less Developed EU Members: Lessons for the CEEC Candidates," European Economy Group Working Papers 5, European Economy Group.
    6. Yuen Ping Ho & Poh Kam Wong & Mun Heng Toh, 2009. "The Impact Of R&D On The Singapore Economy: An Empirical Evaluation," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 54(01), pages 1-20.
    7. Nadiri, M. Ishaq & Prucha, Ingmar R., 1990. "Dynamic factor demand models, productivity measurement, and rates of return: Theory and an empirical application to the US Bell System," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 263-289, December.
    8. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "R&D and Productivity Growth: Comparing Japanese and U.S. Manufacturing Firms," NBER Chapters,in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 187-210 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Bernstein, Jeffrey I. & Nadiri, M. Ishaq, 1990. "Product Demand, Cost Of Production, Spillovers And The Social Rate Or Return To R&D," Working Papers 90-53, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.

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