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A New Framework for Analyzing and Managing Macrofinancial Risks of an Economy

Author

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  • Dale F. Gray
  • Robert C. Merton
  • Zvi Bodie

Abstract

The high cost of international economic and financial crises highlights the need for a comprehensive framework to assess the robustness of national economic and financial systems. This paper proposes a new comprehensive approach to measure, analyze, and manage macroeconomic risk based on the theory and practice of modern contingent claims analysis (CCA). We illustrate how to use the CCA approach to model and measure sectoral and national risk exposures, and analyze policies to offset their potentially harmful effects. This new framework provides economic balance sheets for inter-linked sectors and a risk accounting framework for an economy. CCA provides a natural framework for analysis of mismatches between an entity's assets and liabilities, such as currency and maturity mismatches on balance sheets. Policies or actions that reduce these mismatches will help reduce risk and vulnerability. It also provides a new framework for sovereign capital structure analysis. It is useful for assessing vulnerability, policy analysis, risk management, investment analysis, and design of risk control strategies. Both public and private sector participants can benefit from pursuing ways to facilitate more efficient macro risk accounting, improve price and volatility discovery, and expand international risk intermediation activities.

Suggested Citation

  • Dale F. Gray & Robert C. Merton & Zvi Bodie, 2006. "A New Framework for Analyzing and Managing Macrofinancial Risks of an Economy," NBER Working Papers 12637, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:12637
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Dale F. Gray & Elena Loukoianova & Samuel W. Malone & Cheng Hoon Lim, 2008. "A Risk-Based Debt Sustainability Framework; Incorporating Balance Sheets and Uncertainty," IMF Working Papers 08/40, International Monetary Fund.
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    4. Yingbin Xiao & Dale F. Gray & Cheng Hoon Lim & Michael T. Gapen, 2004. "The Contingent Claims Approach to Corporate Vulnerability Analysis; Estimating Default Risk and Economy-Wide Risk Transfer," IMF Working Papers 04/121, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Mario Draghi & Francesco Giavazzi & Robert C. Merton, 2003. "Transparency, Risk Management and International Financial Fragility," NBER Working Papers 9806, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Timothy C. Irwin, 2016. "Getting the Dog to Bark: Disclosing Fiscal Risks from the Financial Sector," Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy (JICEP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 7(02), pages 1-17, June.
    2. Henry, Jérôme & Kok, Christoffer & Amzallag, Adrien & Baudino, Patrizia & Cabral, Inês & Grodzicki, Maciej & Gross, Marco & Halaj, Grzegorz & Kolb, Markus & Leber, Miha & Pancaro, Cosimo & Sydow, Matt, 2013. "A macro stress testing framework for assessing systemic risks in the banking sector," Occasional Paper Series 152, European Central Bank.
    3. Claudio Borio, 2011. "Rediscovering the Macroeconomic Roots of Financial Stability Policy: Journey, Challenges, and a Way Forward," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 3(1), pages 87-117, December.
    4. Claudio Borio & Mathias Drehmann, 2011. "Toward an Operational Framework for Financial Stability: “Fuzzy” Measurement and Its Consequences," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Rodrigo Alfaro (ed.), Financial Stability, Monetary Policy, and Central Banking, edition 1, volume 15, chapter 4, pages 063-123 Central Bank of Chile.
    5. Baglioni, Angelo & Cherubini, Umberto, 2013. "Marking-to-market government guarantees to financial systems – Theory and evidence for Europe," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 990-1007.
    6. Mario Draghi & Francesco Giavazzi & Robert C. Merton, 2003. "Transparency, Risk Management and International Financial Fragility," NBER Working Papers 9806, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Baglioni, Angelo & Cherubini, Umberto, 2013. "Within and between systemic country risk. Theory and evidence from the sovereign crisis in Europe," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1581-1597.
    8. Dale F. Gray & Carlos J. García & Leonardo Luna & Jorge E. Restrepo, 2011. "Incorporating Financial Sector Risk Into Monetary Policy Models: Application to Chile," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Rodrigo Alfaro (ed.), Financial Stability, Monetary Policy, and Central Banking, edition 1, volume 15, chapter 6, pages 159-197 Central Bank of Chile.
    9. Lai, Wan-Ni, 2016. "Evaluating the sovereign and household credit risk in Singapore: A contingent claims approach," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 435-447.
    10. José Pablo Dapena, 2006. "Volatility of GDP, macro applications and policy implications of real options for structure of capital Markets," CEMA Working Papers: Serie Documentos de Trabajo. 320, Universidad del CEMA.
    11. Khandani, Amir E. & Lo, Andrew W. & Merton, Robert C., 2013. "Systemic risk and the refinancing ratchet effect," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 29-45.
    12. Agliardi, Elettra & Agliardi, Rossella & Pinar, Mehmet & Stengos, Thanasis & Topaloglou, Nikolas, 2012. "A new country risk index for emerging markets: A stochastic dominance approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 741-761.
    13. Robert C. Merton, 2014. "ADB's Distinguished Speakers Program Measuring the Connectedness of the Financial System: Implications for Risk Management," Asian Development Review, MIT Press, vol. 31(1), pages 186-210, March.
    14. Kalteier, Eva-Maria & Posch, Peter N., 2013. "Sovereign asset values and implications for the credit market," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 53-60.
    15. Jaimes Caruana, 2013. "Measuring Systemic Risk," Chapters,in: Stability of the Financial System, chapter 9 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    16. International Monetary Fund, 2008. "Uruguay; Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 08/46, International Monetary Fund.
    17. Dale F. Gray & Robert C. Merton & Zvi Bodie, 2007. "New Framework for Measuring and Managing Macrofinancial Risk and Financial Stability," NBER Working Papers 13607, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Altman, Edward & Rijken, Herbert, 2012. "Toward a bottom-up approach to assessing sovereign default risk: an update," Journal of Financial Transformation, Capco Institute, vol. 34, pages 19-29.
    19. Surach Tanboon & Suchot Piamchol & Tanawat Ruenbanterng & Paiboon Pongpaichet, 2009. "Impacts of Financial Factors on Thailand's Business Cycle Fluctuations," Working Papers 2009-01, Monetary Policy Group, Bank of Thailand.
    20. Edward I. Altman & Herbert A. Rijken, 2013. "Sovereign default risk assessment," International Journal of Banking, Accounting and Finance, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(1/2), pages 6-27.
    21. International Monetary Fund, 2009. "South Africa; Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 09/276, International Monetary Fund.
    22. Tiago Severo, 2012. "Measuring Systemic Liquidity Risk and the Cost of Liquidity Insurance," IMF Working Papers 12/194, International Monetary Fund.
    23. Tai-Yuan Chen & Zhaoyang Gu & Keiichi Kubota & Hitoshi Takehara, 2015. "Accrual-Based and Real Activities Based Earnings Management Behavior of Family Firms in Japan," The Japanese Accounting Review, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, vol. 5, pages 21-47, December.
    24. Eduardo López E. & Víctor Riquelme P. & Ercio Muñoz S., 2011. "Long – Term Interest Rate and Fiscal Policy," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 633, Central Bank of Chile.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
    • E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • H0 - Public Economics - - General

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