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The Roles of Money and Credit in Macroeconomic Analysis

  • Benjamin M. Friedman
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    This paper considers the implications, for macroeconomic modeling and for monetary policy, of the interrelationships among money, credit and nonfinancial economic activity. Data for the United States since World War II show that the volume of outstanding credit is as closely related to economic activity as is the stock of money, and moreover that neither money nor credit is sufficient to account fully for the effect of financial markets in determining real economic activity. Instead, what appears to matter is an interaction between money and credit. This result is consistent with a macroeconomic modeling strategy that deals explicitly with both the money market and the credit market, and with a monetary policy framework based on the joint use of a money growth target and a credit growth target.

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    Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 0831.

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    Date of creation: Dec 1981
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: published as Friedman, Benjamin M. "The Roles of Money and Credit in Macroeconomic Analysis." Macroeconomics, Prices, and Quantities, edited by James Tobin. Washingtion, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, (1983), pp. 161-199.
    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:0831
    Note: ME
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    1. Mehra, Yash P, 1978. "Is Money Exogenous in Money-Demand Equations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(2), pages 211-28, April.
    2. Christopher A. Sims, 1980. "Comparison of Interwar and Postwar Business Cycles: Monetarism Reconsidered," NBER Working Papers 0430, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Benjamin M. Friedman, 1981. "The Relative Stability of Money and Credit "Velocities" in the United States: Evidence and Some Speculations," NBER Working Papers 0645, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Hopewell, Michael H & Kaufman, George G, 1973. "Bond Price Volatility and Term to Maturity: A Generalized Respecification," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(4), pages 749-53, September.
    5. Bodie, Zvi & Friedman, Benjamin Morton, 1978. "Interest Rate Uncertainty and the Value of Bond Call Protection," Scholarly Articles 4554310, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    6. Sargent, Thomas J, 1976. "A Classical Macroeconometric Model for the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(2), pages 207-37, April.
    7. James Tobin, 1969. "Money and Income: Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc?," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 283, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    8. Zellner, Arnold, 1979. "Causality and econometrics," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 9-54, January.
    9. Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-52, September.
    10. ZELLNER, Arnold & PALM, Franz, . "Time series analysis and simultaneous equation econometric models," CORE Discussion Papers RP 173, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    11. Stephen M. Goldfeld & Alan S. Blinder, 1972. "Some Implications of Endogenous Stabilization Policy," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 3(3), pages 585-644.
    12. Thomas J. Sargent, 1975. "The observational equivalence of natural and unnatural rate theories of macroeconomics," Working Papers 48, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    13. Barro, Robert J & Grossman, Herschel I, 1971. "A General Disequilibrium Model of Income and Employment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 82-93, March.
    14. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
    15. Kareken, John H & Muench, Thomas & Wallace, Neil, 1973. "Optimal Open Market Strategy: The Use of Information Variables," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(1), pages 156-72, March.
    16. Brunner, Karl & Meltzer, Allan H, 1972. "Money, Debt, and Economic Activity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(5), pages 951-77, Sept.-Oct.
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