Inter-provincial Migration of Income Among Canada's Older Population: 1996-2001
Much of the literature on internal migration in Canada has focused on the determinants of migration, as opposed to the impacts. Yet, it is likely that migration has a large impact upon the distribution and re-distribution of income across regions. Such impacts may be magnified within the older population, as their relocation involves the transfer of savings such as pensions, retirement investments, or other income supplements from province to province. Using methods proposed by Plane (1999), income-based versions of demographic effectiveness and efficiency are applied to evaluate the movement of non-earned income in the Canadian context among Canada's older population. The analysis uses data drawn from the 2001 Census, and focuses upon the older population (aged 60+ in 2001), distinguishing between three types of income, including (i) Old Age Security and Guaranteed Income Supplements; (ii) Canada/Quebec pension plan benefits; and (iii) Retirement Investment income. In addition to evaluating the magnitude of income redistribution, the impact of primary, return, and onward migration on regional income distributions is also evaluated, illustrating the importance of return migration in transferring incomes over space.
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- H Y- F Cheung & K- L Liaw, 1987. "Metropolitan out-migration of elderly females in Canada: characterizaion and explanation," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 19(12), pages 1659-1671, December.
- J Ledent & K- L Liau, 1989. "Provincial out-migration patterns of Canadian elderly: characterization and explanation," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 21(8), pages 1093-1112, August.
- Daniel Beland & John Myles, 2003. "Stasis Amidst Change: Canadian Pension Reform in an Age of Retrenchment," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 111, McMaster University.
- Emile Tompa, 1999. "Transitions to Retirement: Determinants of Age of Social Security Take Up," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 6, McMaster University.
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