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Health and Income: a Robust Comparison of Canada and the US

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  • Jean-Yves Duclos
  • Damien Échevin

Abstract

This paper uses sequential stochastic dominance procedures to compare the joint distribution of health and income across space and time. It is the first application of which we are aware of methods to compare multidimensional distributions of income and health using procedures that are robust to aggregation techniques. The paper's approach is more general than comparisons of health gradients and does not require the estimation of health equivalent incomes. We illustrate the approach by contrasting Canada and the US using comparable data. Canada dominates the US over the lower bi-dimensional welfare distribution of health and income, though not generally in terms of the uni-dimensional distribution of health or income. The paper also finds that welfare for both Canadians and Americans has not unambiguously improved during the last decade over the joint distribution of income and health, in spite of the fact that the uni-dimensional distributions of income have clearly improved during that period.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-Yves Duclos & Damien Échevin, 2009. "Health and Income: a Robust Comparison of Canada and the US," Cahiers de recherche 0909, CIRPEE.
  • Handle: RePEc:lvl:lacicr:0909
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    6. O'Neill June E & O'Neill Dave M, 2008. "Health Status, Health Care and Inequality: Canada vs. the U.S," Forum for Health Economics & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-45, April.
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    9. Contoyannis, Paul & Forster, Martin, 1999. "The distribution of health and income: a theoretical framework," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 603-620, October.
    10. Fleurbaey, Marc & Schokkaert, Erik, 2009. "Unfair inequalities in health and health care," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, pages 73-90.
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    12. Jenkins, Stephen P & Lambert, Peter J, 1993. "Ranking Income Distributions When Needs Differ," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 39(4), pages 337-356, December.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Rolf Aaberge & Andrea Brandolini, 2014. "Multidimensional poverty and inequality," Discussion Papers 792, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    2. FLEURBAEY, Marc & SHOKKAERT, Erik, "undated". "Equity in health and health care," CORE Discussion Papers RP 2373, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    3. Channing Arndt & Kristi Mahrt & M. Azhar Hussain & Finn Tarp, 2017. "A human rights-consistent approach to multidimensional welfare measurement applied to sub-Saharan Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series 076, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    4. M. Azhar Hussain & Mette Møller Jørgensen & Lars Peter Østerdal, 2016. "Refining Population Health Comparisons: A Multidimensional First Order Dominance Approach," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 129(2), pages 739-759, November.
    5. Frank A Cowell & Martyna Kobus & Radoslaw Kurek, 2017. "Welfare and Inequality Comparisons for Uni- and Multi-dimensional Distributions of Ordinal Data," STICERD - Public Economics Programme Discussion Papers 31, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    6. David Madden, 2015. "Health and Wealth on the Roller-Coaster: Ireland, 2003–2011," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, pages 387-412.
    7. Channing Arndt & Nikolaj Siersbæk, & Lars Peter Østerdal, 2015. "Multidimensional first-order dominance comparisons of population wellbeing," WIDER Working Paper Series 122, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    8. Ida Petrillo, 2017. "Ranking income distributions: a rank-dependent and needs-based approach," SERIES 03-2017, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza - Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro", revised Jul 2017.
    9. Martyna Kobus & Radoslaw Kurek, 2017. "Copula-based measurement of interdependence for discrete distributions," Working Papers 431, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Health inequality; self-reported health status; income distribution; stochastic dominance; social welfare;

    JEL classification:

    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • D30 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - General
    • H51 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Health

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