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Orphanhood and Schooling in South Africa: Trends in the vulnerability of orphans between 1993 and 2005

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  • Cally Ardington

    () (SALDRU, School of Economics, University of Cape TownAuthor-Email:)

Abstract

Using 11 nationally representative surveys conducted between 1993 and 2005 this paper assesses the extent to which the vulnerability of orphans to poorer educational outcomes has changed over time as the AIDS crisis deepens in South Africa. This paper seeks to establish whether the fear that extended families are no longer effective safety nets may be overstated or whether traditional coping strategies are indeed breaking down. Patterns of care giving for orphans do appear to be shifting over time but these changes are taking place within the extended family safety net. Orphans are still absorbed into extended families but single orphans are increasingly less likely to live with the surviving parent and there is an increasing reliance on grandparents as caregivers. At every point in time cross-sectional evidence suggests that orphans are at risk of poorer educational outcomes with maternal deaths generally having stronger negative effects than paternal deaths. Paternal deaths are strongly associated with poorer socio-economic status and much of the deficit experienced by children who have lost a father is explained by the relative poverty of their current household. In contrast maternal deaths appear to be directly associated with poorer schooling outcomes rather than channelled through socio-economic status. The results in this paper suggest that parental involvement and relatedness to the household are among the multiple pathways through which parental death affects a child's schooling. Despite a significant increase in the number of orphans over the last decade this paper finds no evidence of a systematic deterioration in traditional coping strategies with respect to orphan's educational outcomes.

Suggested Citation

  • Cally Ardington, 2008. "Orphanhood and Schooling in South Africa: Trends in the vulnerability of orphans between 1993 and 2005," SALDRU Working Papers 16, Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town.
  • Handle: RePEc:ldr:wpaper:16
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Esther Duflo, 2003. "Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old-Age Pensions and Intrahousehold Allocation in South Africa," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(1), pages 1-25, June.
    2. Case, Anne & Deaton, Angus, 1998. "Large Cash Transfers to the Elderly in South Africa," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(450), pages 1330-1361, September.
    3. Anne Case & Christina Paxson & Joseph Ableidinger, 2004. "Orphans in Africa: parental death, poverty, and school enrollment," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 41(3), pages 483-508, August.
    4. David Evans & Edward Miguel, 2007. "Orphans and schooling in africa: a longitudinal analysis," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 44(1), pages 35-57, February.
    5. repec:pri:cheawb:case_paxson_orphansafrica is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:pri:rpdevs:case_paxson_orphansafrica.pdf is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Anne Case & Cally Ardington, 2006. "The impact of parental death on school outcomes: Longitudinal evidence from South Africa," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 43(3), pages 401-420, August.
    8. repec:pri:rpdevs:case_paxson_orphansafrica is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Cally Ardington & Murray Leibbrandt, 2010. "Orphanhood and Schooling in South Africa: Trends in the Vulnerability of Orphans between 1993 and 2005," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(3), pages 507-536, April.
    10. repec:pri:cheawb:case_paxson_orphansafrica.pdf is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Ainsworth, Martha & Filmer, Deon, 2006. "Inequalities in children's schooling: AIDS, orphanhood, poverty, and gender," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1099-1128, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    Cited by:

    1. Mather, David, 2011. "Poverty, AIDS, Orphanhood, Gender, and Child Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Evidence," Food Security International Development Working Papers 119319, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    2. Philippe De Vreyer & Björn Nilsson, 2016. "When Solidarity Fails: Heterogeneous Effects of Orphanhood in Senegalese Households," Working Papers DT/2016/17, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    3. Cally Ardington & Murray Leibbrandt, 2010. "Orphanhood and Schooling in South Africa: Trends in the Vulnerability of Orphans between 1993 and 2005," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(3), pages 507-536, April.
    4. Kasedde, Susan & Doyle, Aoife M. & Seeley, Janet A. & Ross, David A., 2014. "They are not always a burden: Older people and child fostering in Uganda during the HIV epidemic," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 161-168.
    5. Roby, Jini L. & Erickson, Lance & Nagaishi, Chanel, 2016. "Education for children in sub-Saharan Africa: Predictors impacting school attendance," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 110-116.

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