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EthniCity of Leisure: A Domains Approach to Ethnic Integration During Free Time Activities


  • Kamenik, Kristiina

    () (University of Tartu)

  • Tammaru, Tiit

    () (University of Tartu)

  • van Ham, Maarten

    () (Delft University of Technology)


This paper takes a domains approach to understanding ethnic segregation; ethnic segregation occurs in different ways in different domains (such as the residential neighbourhood, workplaces, leisure, etc.). Where most studies focus on residential segregation, this study focusses on ethnic segregation during leisure time. We investigate the most common leisure time activities, activity sites and the interaction between members of minority and majority populations as they spend their time out-of- home and out-of-workplace. Conceptually we link leisure time segregation both with residential and workplace segregation, in line with the domains approach. Our case study area is Tallinn, Estonia, and the main findings show that leisure time activity patterns have become very similar across the main ethnic groups, which is different from what is found for workplace and residential segregation. This shows the integrative potential of leisure time activities. However, different ethnic groups tend to visit different activity sites as leisure sites are related to where people live.

Suggested Citation

  • Kamenik, Kristiina & Tammaru, Tiit & van Ham, Maarten, 2016. "EthniCity of Leisure: A Domains Approach to Ethnic Integration During Free Time Activities," IZA Discussion Papers 10146, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10146

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Glitz, Albrecht, 2014. "Ethnic segregation in Germany," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 28-40.
    2. Tiit Tammaru & Magnus Strömgren & Olof Stjernström & Urban Lindgren, 2010. "Learning through Contact? The Effects on Earnings of Immigrant Exposure to the Native Population," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 42(12), pages 2938-2955, December.
    3. Magnus Strömgren & Tiit Tammaru & Alexander Danzer & Maarten Ham & Szymon Marcińczak & Olof Stjernström & Urban Lindgren, 2014. "Factors Shaping Workplace Segregation Between Natives and Immigrants," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(2), pages 645-671, April.
    4. van Ham, Maarten & Tammaru, Tiit, 2016. "New Perspectives on Ethnic Segregation over Time and Space: A Domains Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 9663, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Kristi Anniste & Tiit Tammaru, 2014. "Ethnic differences in integration levels and return migration intentions," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 30(13), pages 377-412.
    6. Eva Andersson & John Östh & Bo Malmberg, 2010. "Ethnic Segregation and Performance Inequality in the Swedish School System: A Regional Perspective," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 42(11), pages 2674-2686, November.
    7. Sean Reardon & John Yun & Tamela Eitle, 2000. "The changing structure of school segregation: Measurement and evidence of multiracial metropolitan-area school segregation, 1989–1995," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 37(3), pages 351-364, August.
    8. Tiit Tammaru & Maarten Ham, 2016. "New Perspectives on Ethnic Segregation over Time and Space: A Domains Approach," Working Papers id:9352, eSocialSciences.
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    More about this item


    leisure time; ethnic integration; ethnic segmentation; ethnic segregation; mixed method approach; Estonia;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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