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The formation of ethnically mixed partnerships in Estonia: A stalling trend from a two-sided perspective

Author

Listed:
  • Allan Puur

    (Tallinna Ülikool)

  • Leen Rahnu

    (Tallinna Ülikool)

  • Luule Sakkeus

    (Tallinna Ülikool)

  • Martin Klesment

    (Tallinna Ülikool)

  • Liili Abuladze

    (Tallinna Ülikool)

Abstract

Background: Ethnically mixed partnerships are often regarded as the ultimate evidence of the integration of migrants and their descendants into their host society. A common finding in the literature is an increase in the occurrence of mixed partnerships across migrant generations. Objective: This study investigates the formation of minority–majority partnerships in Estonia, with special attention to the variation associated with the migrants’ generation and their exposure to the majority population. Methods: The study uses pooled data from the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (FFS) and the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS), and estimates proportional hazards models. Results: The experience of second-generation migrants indicates a stalling trend in the incidence of mixed partnerships between the majority population and migrant groups, which is rooted in contextual features. Apart from residential proximity, the study shows the salience of early acquisition of the host society language. Our results for the majority population highlight the role of international migration, which exposes host populations to mixed partnership formation. Conclusions: The results lend support to the view that the integration of migrant populations through mixed partnering is a lengthy process that stretches across several generations. A linguistically divided school system and residential segregation contribute to the pillarization of society. Contribution: By focussing on an Eastern European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of mixed unions in different socioeconomic and cultural settings. Estonia provides an interesting case as its migrant-origin minorities span several generations. The study underscores the importance of contextual factors for both the minority and majority populations.

Suggested Citation

  • Allan Puur & Leen Rahnu & Luule Sakkeus & Martin Klesment & Liili Abuladze, 2018. "The formation of ethnically mixed partnerships in Estonia: A stalling trend from a two-sided perspective," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 38(38), pages 1111-1154.
  • Handle: RePEc:dem:demres:v:38:y:2018:i:38
    DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2018.38.38
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    File URL: https://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol38/38/38-38.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Martin Klesment & Allan Puur, 2010. "Effects of education on second births before and after societal transition: Evidence from the Estonian GGS," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 22(28), pages 891-932.
    2. Grace Kao & Kara Joyner, 2006. "Do Hispanic and Asian Adolescents Practice Panethnicity in Friendship Choices?," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 87(5), pages 972-992, December.
    3. Grace Kao & Kara Joyner, 2006. "Do Hispanic and Asian Adolescents Practice Panethnicity in Friendship Choices?," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 87(s1), pages 972-992.
    4. Aaron Gullickson & Florencia Torche, 2014. "Patterns of Racial and Educational Assortative Mating in Brazil," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(3), pages 835-856, June.
    5. Matthijs Kalmijn & Frank Tubergen, 2010. "A comparative perspective on intermarriage: Explaining differences among national-origin groups in the United States," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 47(2), pages 459-479, May.
    6. Hill Kulu, 2002. "Socialization and residence: ethnic return migrants in Estonia," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 34(2), pages 289-316, February.
    7. Barry Chiswick & Christina Houseworth, 2011. "Ethnic intermarriage among immigrants: human capital and assortative mating," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 149-180, June.
    8. Roland G. Fryer Jr., 2007. "Guess Who's Been Coming to Dinner? Trends in Interracial Marriage over the 20th Century," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(2), pages 71-90, Spring.
    9. Allan Puur & Leen Rahnu & Liili Abuladze & Luule Sakkeus & Sergei Zakharov, 2017. "Childbearing among first- and second-generation Russians in Estonia against the background of the sending and host countries," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 36(41), pages 1209-1254.
    10. Delia Furtado & Nikolaos Theodoropoulos, 2011. "Interethnic marriage: a choice between ethnic and educational similarities," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 24(4), pages 1257-1279, October.
    11. Hill Kulu & Amparo González-Ferrer, 2014. "Family Dynamics Among Immigrants and Their Descendants in Europe: Current Research and Opportunities," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 30(4), pages 411-435, November.
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    15. van Ham, Maarten & Tammaru, Tiit, 2016. "New Perspectives on Ethnic Segregation over Time and Space: A Domains Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 9663, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
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    Cited by:

    1. Tina Hannemann & Hill Kulu & Leen Rahnu & Allan Puur & Mihaela Hărăguş & Ognjen Obućina & Amparo González-Ferrer & Karel Neels & Layla Van den Berg & Ariane Pailhé & Gina Potarca & Laura Bernardi, 2018. "Co-ethnic marriage versus intermarriage among immigrants and their descendants: A comparison across seven European countries using event-history analysis," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 39(17), pages 487-524.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    partnership formation; immigrants; second generation; integration; Estonia; event history analysis; Generations and Gender Programme (GGP);

    JEL classification:

    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • Z0 - Other Special Topics - - General

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