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O Potencial Distributivo do Imposto de Rendapessoa Física (IRPF)

  • Sergei Soares
  • Fernando Gaiger Silveira
  • Claudio Hamilton dos Santos
  • Fábio Monteiro Vaz
  • André Luis Souza

Este texto argumenta a favor de níveis mais elevados de Imposto de Renda-Pessoa Física (IRPF). Verificamos que, de todos os países para os quais existem informações, o Brasil é o que menos arrecada IRPF relativo à Carga Tributária Bruta (CTB). O IRPF é responsável por algo em torno de 6% da CTB, um pouco mais que 2% do Produto Interno Bruto (PIB) e um pouco mais que 4% da renda das famílias, segundo a Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD). Mostramos que isto se deve, pelo menos em parte, tanto a alíquotas de IRPF que isentam indivíduos abaixo do percentil 85 na distribuição dos rendimentos individuais, como também a uma alíquota marginal máxima (27,5%) baixa. Estimamos, usando a PNAD e a Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF), o Coeficiente de Concentração do IRPF, que se situa entre 0,89 e 0,92, o que o torna altamente progressivo. Também estimamos que há em torno de 80% de evasão e/ou elisão entre famílias cujas rendas principais são oriundas do trabalho por conta própria ou da atividade empresarial; entre famílias cuja renda principal é o vínculo empregatício, estimamos a evasão e/ou elisão em aproximadamente 20%. Finalmente, analisamos o impacto de uma série de mudanças teóricas no IRPF e chegamos à conclusão de que teriam como resultado dobrar a arrecadação. Se esse aumento de arrecadação fosse compensado por uma redução em um tributo regressivo, como a Contribuição para o Financiamento da Seguridade Social (Cofins), para que não houvesse modificação da CTB, o resultado seria uma redução de 2,3 pontos percentuais do coeficiente de Gini. This text argues for higher Personal Income Tax levels. We show that, for all countries for which tax information is available, Brazil is the one in which Personal Income Tax collection as a percentage of the gross tax burden is the lowest. Personal Income Taxes account for about 6% of the Gross Tax Burden, slightly more than 2% of GDP, and slightly more than 4% of family income (according to the PNAD household survey). We show that this is due both to the fact that tax brackets are so high so as to exempt 85% of income earners from paying any income tax and the fact that our highest tax bracket is only 27.5%, which is lower than the maximum tax bracket of almost all countries for which tax information is available. Using Household and Expenditure Surveys, we estimate the Personal Income Tax Concentration Coefficients at between 89 and 92, which show a very progressive tax schedule. We also estimate that families who live on self employment and business income evade or avoid 80% of their personal income tax liabilities but that families who live off employment income evade or avoid only 20%. Finally, we analyze the impact of a series of theoretical changes in Personal Income Tax rules and conclude that they would approximately double Personal Income Tax collection. If the additional revenue were compensated by a reduction in a regressive tax, such as Contribuição para o Financiamento da Seguridade Social (Cofins), so as to hold the total Tax Burden constant, the result would be a 2,3 point fall in the Gini coefficient.

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Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1433.

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Length: 46 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1433
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  1. Slemrod, Joel, 1990. "Optimal Taxation and Optimal Tax Systems," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 157-78, Winter.
  2. Joel Slemrod, 1996. "High-Income Families and the Tax Changes of the 1980s: The Anatomy of Behavioral Response," NBER Chapters, in: Empirical Foundations of Household Taxation, pages 169-192 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Alan J. Auerbach, 2006. "Who Bears the Corporate Tax? A Review of What We Know," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 20, pages 1-40 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Robert K. Triest, 1990. "The Effect of Income Taxation on Labor Supply in the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(3), pages 491-516.
  5. Goñi, Edwin & Humberto López, J. & Servén, Luis, 2011. "Fiscal Redistribution and Income Inequality in Latin America," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1558-1569, September.
  6. François Bourguignon & Thierry Magnac, 1990. "Labor Supply and Taxation in France," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(3), pages 358-389.
  7. Daniel Feenberg & James Poterba, 1992. "Income Inequality and the Incomes of Very High Income Taxpayers: Evidence from Tax Returns," NBER Working Papers 4229, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Mirrlees, James A, 1971. "An Exploration in the Theory of Optimum Income Taxation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(114), pages 175-208, April.
  9. Thomas MaCurdy & David Green & Harry Paarsch, 1990. "Assessing Empirical Approaches for Analyzing Taxes and Labor Supply," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(3), pages 415-490.
  10. Feldstein, Martin, 1995. "Effect of Marginal Tax Rates on Taxable Income: A Panel Study of the 1986 Tax Reform Act," Scholarly Articles 2766676, Harvard University Department of Economics.
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