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O Ritmo de Queda na Desigualdade no Brasil é Adequado? Evidências do Contexto Histórico e Internacional

Listed author(s):
  • Sergei Suarez Dillon Soares

Este texto utiliza duas abordagens para responder se o ritmo de queda da desigualdade no Brasil está adequado ou não. A primeira é comparar o ritmo de queda no coeficiente de Gini no Brasil com a queda no mesmo indicador em alguns países hoje pertencentes à Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE) - Espanha, Estados Unidos, França, Noruega, Países Baixos, Reino Unido e Suécia - , enquanto os mesmos construíam seus estados de bem-estar social durante o século passado. A segunda é calcular por quanto tempo o Brasil deverá manter o mesmo ritmo de queda para alcançar os níveis de desigualdade hoje observados em alguns países da OCDE que podem servir como referência: o Canadá, os Estados Unidos e o México. Os dados indicam que o ritmo de queda da desigualdade no Brasil de 0,7 ponto de Gini ao ano é superior ao ritmo que todos os países analisados seguiram enquanto construíam seus estados de bem-estar social, salvo a Espanha, cujo ritmo foi um pouco superior (0,9 ponto ao ano). Por seu turno, as distâncias que nos separam dos países-referência escolhidos são seis anos para o México, 12 para os Estados Unidos, e 24 anos para o Canadá. A conclusão geral do estudo é que o ritmo de queda na desigualdade é adequado, mas que o desafio será manter este ritmo por várias décadas para alcançar o nível de desigualdade, por exemplo, do Canadá. The following study uses two approaches to judge whether inequality in Brazil is falling fast enough. The first is to compare the variation of the Gini coefficient in Brazil with what was observed in several countries that today belong to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) - France, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States - while they built their social welfare systems during the last century. The second approach is to calculate for how long Brazil must keep up the fall in the Gini coefficient to attain the same levels of inequality of three OECD countries that can be used as a reference: Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The data indicate that the Gini coefficient in Brazil is falling 0.7 point per year and that this is superior to the rhythm of all the OECD countries analyzed while they built their welfare systems but Spain, whose Gini fell 0.9 point per year during the 1950s. The time needed to attain various benchmarks in inequality are: six years to Mexico, twelve to the United States and 24 to Canadian inequality levels. The general conclusion is that the speed with which inequality is falling is adequate, but the challenge will be to keep inequality falling at the same rate for another two or three decades.

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Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1339.

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Length: 21 pages
Date of creation: May 2008
Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1339
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  1. Sergei Suarez Dillon Soares & Rafael Guerreiro Osorio, 2007. "Desigualdade e Bem-Estar no Brasil na Década da Estabilidade," Discussion Papers 1270, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  2. Neri, Marcelo Cortes, 2006. "Desigualdade, estabilidade e bem-estar social," FGV/EPGE Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 637, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
  3. Ricardo Paes de Barros & Samir Cury & Gabriel Ulyssea, 2007. "A Desigualdade de Renda no Brasil Encontra-se Subestimada? Uma Análise Comparativa com Base na PNAD, na POF e nas Contas Nacionais," Discussion Papers 1263, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  4. Morrisson, Christian, 2000. "Historical perspectives on income distribution: The case of Europe," Handbook of Income Distribution,in: A.B. Atkinson & F. Bourguignon (ed.), Handbook of Income Distribution, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 217-260 Elsevier.
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