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Residential Segregation and Social Exclusion in Brazilian Housing Markets

Author

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  • Maria da Piedade Morais
  • Bruno de Oliveira Cruz
  • Carlos Wagner de Albuquerque Oliveira

Abstract

This paper seeks to analyze the set of characteristics that can explain the existence of slums (favelas) in Brazilian cities, based upon microdata from the 1999 edition of the National Household Survey (Pnad), published by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The paper is divided in 2 main parts. In the first part, we make a brief description of the urbanization trends, the process of slum formation and the poverty profile in Brazil and present a survey of the empirical literature on social exclusion and spatial segregation. The second part of the article describes a logit regression designed to test the hypothesis if local, regional and personal attributes such as immigration, income level, household size, schooling, tenure conditions, gender, race, age, labor market insertion, sector of activity, city size and other locational variables are important to explain the existence of slums and residential segregation in the housing markets of the major Brazilian cities. Other concern of the paper is the nature of the relationship established between labor and housing markets, and the way in which discrimination and segmentation in both markets reinforce each other. By shedding some light on the causes and the nature of social discrimination and spatial segregation faced by slum-dwellers in Brazil (favelados), this study can aid policy makers to design more efficient urban and regional development policies in order to fight urban poverty in Brazil and in other developing countries. Este artigo pretende analisar o conjunto de características que podem explicar o surgimento de favelas nas cidades brasileiras, a partir dos microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostras de Domicílio (Pnad) do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) para o ano de 1999. O artigo está dividido em 2 partes principais. Na primeira parte, faz-se uma breve descrição das tendências da urbanização, do processo de formação de favelas e do perfil da pobreza no Brasil e apresenta-se uma resenha da literatura empírica sobre exclusão social e segregação espacial. Na segunda parte, estima-se uma função logit para testar hipóteses se atributos locais, regionais e pessoais como migração, nível de renda, tamanho da família, escolaridade, regime de propriedade, gênero, raça, idade, posição no mercado de trabalho, setor de atividade, tamanho de cidade e outros fatores locacionais são importantes para explicar o surgimento de favelas e a existência de segregação espacial e exclusão social no mercado habitacional das principais cidades brasileiras. Outra preocupação do artigo é esclarecer a natureza das relações existentes entre os mercados de trabalho e de habitação e o modo pelo qual a discriminação e a segmentação em ambos os mercados se reforçam mutuamente. Ao tentar elucidar as causas e a natureza da discriminação social e da segregação espacial enfrentadas pelos moradores das favelas brasileiras (“favelados”), este estudo pode ser útil no desenho de políticas de Desenvolvimento Regional e Urbano mais eficazes no combate à pobreza urbana, tanto no Brasil quanto em outros países em desenvolvimento.

Suggested Citation

  • Maria da Piedade Morais & Bruno de Oliveira Cruz & Carlos Wagner de Albuquerque Oliveira, 2015. "Residential Segregation and Social Exclusion in Brazilian Housing Markets," Discussion Papers 0122, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:0122
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:hoo:wpaper:e-95-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn & Jordan Rappaport, 2000. "Why Do The Poor Live In Cities?," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1891, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    3. Marcelo Côrtes Nerí, 1999. "Assets, Markets and Poverty in Brazil," Research Department Publications 3055, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    4. Roland Benabou, 1993. "Workings of a City: Location, Education, and Production," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 619-652.
    5. David M. Cutler & Edward L. Glaeser, 1995. "Are Ghettos Good or Bad?," NBER Working Papers 5163, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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