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Normativa del mercado laboral y desigualdad del ingreso: elementos de juicio de un grupo de países

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  • César Calderón
  • Alberto Chong

    ()

  • Rodrigo Valdés

Abstract

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) Este trabajo presenta elementos de juicio sobre los efectos de la normativa laboral en la desigualdad del ingreso, empleando dos bases de datos publicadas recientemente sobre las instituciones y los resultados laborales (Rama y Artecona, 2002; Botero, Djankov, La Porta, López de Silanes y Shleifer, 2003) y diversas técnicas de análisis de muestras representativas y de datos de panel, de una muestra de 121 países durante el período de 1970 a 2000. Al tomar en cuenta las técnicas que tienen mayor probabilidad de ser valederas, descubrimos lo siguiente: (i) la normativa de jure no hace mejorar la distribución del ingreso, (ii) el cumplimiento relativo de la normativa vigente hace mejorar la distribución del ingreso y (iii) la normativa de facto guarda una escasa relación con el mejoramiento de la desigualdad del ingreso. Este resultado obedece en parte al hecho de que la normativa es endógena y, más curiosamente, que diversas normativas tienen erectos muy diversos. En particular, hallamos que todo efecto de redistribución de la normativa laboral puede provenir de la afiliación sindical, el empleo en el sector público y las prestaciones de ley (representadas por el permiso de maternidad).

Suggested Citation

  • César Calderón & Alberto Chong & Rodrigo Valdés, 2004. "Normativa del mercado laboral y desigualdad del ingreso: elementos de juicio de un grupo de países," Research Department Publications 4376, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4376
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. Deininger, Klaus & Squire, Lyn, 1996. "A New Data Set Measuring Income Inequality," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(3), pages 565-591, September.
    4. Patrick Vanhoudt, 1997. "Do Labor Market Policies and Growth Fundamentals Matter for Income Inequality in OECD Countries?: Some Empirical Evidence," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 44(3), pages 356-373, September.
    5. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
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