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Normativa del mercado laboral y desigualdad del ingreso: elementos de juicio de un grupo de países

  • César Calderón
  • Alberto Chong

    ()

  • Rodrigo Valdés

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) Este trabajo presenta elementos de juicio sobre los efectos de la normativa laboral en la desigualdad del ingreso, empleando dos bases de datos publicadas recientemente sobre las instituciones y los resultados laborales (Rama y Artecona, 2002; Botero, Djankov, La Porta, López de Silanes y Shleifer, 2003) y diversas técnicas de análisis de muestras representativas y de datos de panel, de una muestra de 121 países durante el período de 1970 a 2000. Al tomar en cuenta las técnicas que tienen mayor probabilidad de ser valederas, descubrimos lo siguiente: (i) la normativa de jure no hace mejorar la distribución del ingreso, (ii) el cumplimiento relativo de la normativa vigente hace mejorar la distribución del ingreso y (iii) la normativa de facto guarda una escasa relación con el mejoramiento de la desigualdad del ingreso. Este resultado obedece en parte al hecho de que la normativa es endógena y, más curiosamente, que diversas normativas tienen erectos muy diversos. En particular, hallamos que todo efecto de redistribución de la normativa laboral puede provenir de la afiliación sindical, el empleo en el sector público y las prestaciones de ley (representadas por el permiso de maternidad).

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Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 4376.

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Date of creation: Oct 2004
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4376
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  1. Juan Botero & Simeon Djankov & Rafael LaPorta & Florencio López-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, . "The Regulation of Labor," Working Paper 19483, Harvard University OpenScholar.
  2. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2001. "Law, politics, and finance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2585, The World Bank.
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  4. Squire, Lyn & Suthiwart-Narueput, Sethaput, 1997. "The Impact of Labor Market Regulations," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 119-43, January.
  5. Patrick Vanhoudt, 1997. "Do Labor Market Policies and Growth Fundamentals Matter for Income Inequality in OECD Countries?: Some Empirical Evidence," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 44(3), pages 356-373, September.
  6. R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  7. Galor, Oded & Tsiddon, Daniel, 1996. "Income Distribution and Growth: The Kuznets Hypothesis Revisited," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(250), pages S103-17, Suppl..
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