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Factores determinantes de los costos del transporte marítimo

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  • Alejandro Micco
  • Natalia Perez

Abstract

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) La obra publicada recientemente ha hecho hincapié en la importancia de los costos y la infraestructura de transporte para explicar el comercio internacional, el acceso a los mercados y los aumentos del ingreso per cápita. Para la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos, los costos del transporte son una barrera más grande para los mercados estadounidenses que los aranceles de importación. Investigamos los factores que determinan los costos de embarque hacia EE. UU. , con una gran base de datos de más de 300. 000 observaciones al año de embarques de productos al nivel de seis dígitos de HS desde distintos puertos de todo el mundo. Descubrimos que la distancia y la capacidad de uso de contenedores sí importan. Además, hallamos que la eficiencia de los puertos es un factor determinante de los costos navieros. Mejorar la eficiencia portuaria de 25% a 75% reduce los costos navieros en 12%. (En el caso del país promedio, puertos deficientes equivalen a estar 60% más lejos de los mercados). Puertos ineficientes también hacen aumentar los costos de manejo, que son uno de los componentes de los costos navieros. Tratamos de explicar las variaciones de eficiencia portuaria y hallamos que guardan relación con el exceso de regulación, el predominio de la delincuencia organizada y la situación general de la infraestructura del país. Por último, presentamos un número de casos individuales de éxito en América Latina que demuestran que la participación del sector privado en la gestión portuaria conduce a la eficiencia y hace bajar los costos, en los casos en que va acompañada de una reforma laboral y cuando el poder monopólico se reduce ya sea mediante la regulación o la competencia.

Suggested Citation

  • Alejandro Micco & Natalia Perez, 2002. "Factores determinantes de los costos del transporte marítimo," Research Department Publications 4248, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4248
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    References listed on IDEAS

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