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Cross-Border Acquisitions and Greenfield Entry

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Abstract

We investigate the interaction between cross-border acquisitions and greenfield entry in a multi-firm setting. It is shown that the net profits of the acquirer may decrease when the acquisition gives the acquirer a strong position in the product market, relative to greenfield entrants. The reason is that the price of the assets increases more than the acquirer's profit, due to strategic interaction effects in the product market. The paper also provides an explanation why MNEs entering a new market by acquisitions may make a lower profit than MNEs entering greenfield. A greenfield entrant faces the risk of not being able to successfully locate production due to the lack of knowledge of characteristics of the local market. The bidding competition between the MNEs for being successfully located in the market then drives up the acquisition price to such a level that being a successful greenfield entrant is, ex post, more profitable.

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  • Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2002. "Cross-Border Acquisitions and Greenfield Entry," Working Paper Series 570, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:0570
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    1. Morton I. Kamien & Israel Zang, 1987. "The Limits of Monopolization Through Acquisition," Discussion Papers 754, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    2. James R. Markusen, 1995. "The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 169-189, Spring.
    3. Kofi Nti, 2000. "Potential competition and coordination in a market-entry game," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 71(2), pages 149-165, June.
    4. Horn, Henrik & Persson, Lars, 2001. "The equilibrium ownership of an international oligopoly," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 307-333, April.
    5. repec:hhs:iuiwop:511 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Vives, Xavier, 1988. "Sequential entry, industry structure and welfare," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1671-1687, October.
    7. Keith Head & John Ries, 1997. "International Mergers and Welfare under Decentralized Competition Policy," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 30(4), pages 1104-1123, November.
    8. Joseph Farrell & Carl Shapiro, 1990. "Asset Ownership and Market Structure in Oligopoly," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(2), pages 275-292, Summer.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Kirkegaard, Jacob Funk, 2012. "Transactions: A New Look at Service Sector Foreign Direct Investment in Asia," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 318, Asian Development Bank.
    2. Norback, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2004. "Privatization and foreign competition," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 409-416, March.
    3. Onur Koska, 2009. "Foreign Direct Investment For Sale," Working Papers 0910, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Oct 2009.
    4. Fumagalli, Eileen & Vasconcelos, Helder, 2009. "Sequential cross-border mergers," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 175-187, March.
    5. Yasuhiko Nakamura, 2011. "Strategic managerial delegation and cross-border mergers," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 104(1), pages 49-89, September.
    6. Alberto Salvo, 2010. "Sequential Cross-border Mergers in Models of Oligopoly," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 77(306), pages 352-383, April.
    7. Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2007. "Globalization and Profitability of Cross-border Mergers & Acquisitions," CEPR Discussion Papers 6102, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Müller, Thomas, 2003. "The Multinational Enterprise," Munich Dissertations in Economics 799, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    9. Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2001. "Investment Liberalization - Who Benefits from Cross-Border Mergers & Acquisitions?," Working Paper Series 569, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    10. Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2003. "Cross-Border Acquisitions and Greenfield Entry: Profitability and Stock Market Value," CEPR Discussion Papers 3998, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    11. Fumagalli, Eileen & Vasconcelos, Helder, 2006. "Cross-Border Merger Waves," CEPR Discussion Papers 5601, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2002. "Investment Liberalization - Who Benefits from Cross Border Mergers," CEPR Discussion Papers 3166, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

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    Keywords

    Investment Liberalization; FDI; Mergers & Acquisitions;

    JEL classification:

    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

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