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A Tale of Three Seasonal Adjustment Procedures: The Case of Sweden's GDP

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  • Ermini, Luigi

    (Dept. of Economic Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics)

Abstract

The paper compares the search for structural breaks in Sweden's GDP conducted with X-11 seasonally adjusted data, with seasonally unadjusted data, and with temporally aggregated data. A structural break (in 1980) is found only in the X-11 adjusted data, it is plausible to conclude that this break is due to data distortions (particularly, distortions caused by the application of the filter). However, this interpretation is only plausible a posteriori: had the seasonally unadjusted data not been available, the break found in the adjusted series could be just as well interpreted as a break in the economy and not as a break in the data. The study suggests that seasonally adjusted data should not be used when the unadjusted version is also available.

Suggested Citation

  • Ermini, Luigi, 1998. "A Tale of Three Seasonal Adjustment Procedures: The Case of Sweden's GDP," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 230, Stockholm School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:hastef:0230
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hylleberg, S. & Engle, R. F. & Granger, C. W. J. & Yoo, B. S., 1990. "Seasonal integration and cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, pages 215-238.
    2. Franses, Philip Hans, 1996. "Periodicity and Stochastic Trends in Economic Time Series," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774549.
    3. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    4. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    5. Franses, Ph.H.B.F. & van Dijk, D.J.C., 1997. "Do We Often Find ARCH Because Of Neglected Outliers?," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 9706-/A, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
    6. Hylleberg, S. & Engle, R. F. & Granger, C. W. J. & Yoo, B. S., 1990. "Seasonal integration and cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, pages 215-238.
    7. Granger, C. W. J. & Newbold, Paul, 1986. "Forecasting Economic Time Series," Elsevier Monographs, Elsevier, edition 2, number 9780122951831 edited by Shell, Karl.
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    Cited by:

    1. Raimundo Soto, 2002. "Ajuste Estacional e Integración en Variables Macroeconómicas," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., pages 135-155.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    X-11 filter; seasonal adjustment; seasonal unit roots;

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models

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