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Budget Deficits, Tax Risk and Consumption

Author

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  • Becker, Torbjörn

    (Department of Economics)

Abstract

This paper analyzes the effects of budget deficits on consumption when individual taxes are stochastic. It is shown that the co-movements between budget deficits and private consumption will depend on how risk averse individuals are. In the case of lump-sum taxes, it is sufficient to assume that individuals have a precautionary savings motive to obtain the result that consumption today will decrease with increased disposable income today. Furthermore, if we use a time separable iso-elastic utility funcition, the standard analysis of capital income risk predicts (precautionary) savings to increase with increased risk if the coefficient fo relative risk aversion is greater than one. This is no longer sufficient when the risk is due to uncertain capital income taxes. In general, the coefficient must be greater than one to obtain precautionary savings in resonse to the greater risk implied by a budget deficit. The results in the paper are consistent with Ricardian equivalence only for some specific utility function, but not in general. However, in the same way, the results are consistent with standard Keynesian models that display a positive relation between debt and private consumption only for certain utility functions, and could equally well generate the opposite result for individuals that are enough risk averse or prudent, without changing the expected value of government consumption. In other words, if future taxes are uncertain, increased disposable income in the present period will decrease present consumption, if households are prudent enough.

Suggested Citation

  • Becker, Torbjörn, 1995. "Budget Deficits, Tax Risk and Consumption," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 74, Stockholm School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:hastef:0074
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    5. Bertola, Giuseppe & Drazen, Allan, 1993. "Trigger Points and Budget Cuts: Explaining the Effects of Fiscal Austerity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 11-26, March.
    6. Francesco Giavazzi & Marco Pagano, 1990. "Can Severe Fiscal Contractions Be Expansionary? Tales of Two Small European Countries," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1990, Volume 5, pages 75-122 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Ormiston, Michael B. & Schlee, Edward E., 1992. "Necessary conditions for comparative statics under uncertainty," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 429-434, December.
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    9. Aschauer, David Alan, 1985. "Fiscal Policy and Aggregate Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(1), pages 117-127, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Becker, Torbjörn, 1995. "Budget Deficits, Stochastic Population Size and Consumption," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 75, Stockholm School of Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Budget deficits; tax risk; precautionary savings;

    JEL classification:

    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
    • E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth
    • H60 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - General

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