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Japan’s Economic and Financial Stagnation and the Possibility of a Second Lost Decade

  • Cargill, Thomas

    ()

    (University of Nevada)

This paper reviews the reasons why Japan has failed to resolve the economic and financial distress that started in 1990 with the collapse of asset prices despite many efforts to stimulate the economy and redesign the financial system. Why has recovery not yet occurred, and is Japan in a second lost decade in terms of economic and financial development? I discuss how restraints embedded in the Japanese financial system account for the slow and incomplete reform process. These include: financial liberalization in Japan was more a response to specific interest groups than an effort at fundamental redesign; perceived absence of moral hazard and regulatory-market dialectic in Japan; economic history’s influence on Japan’s perceived need for institutional redesign; clash between liberalization and Japanese culture; BIS capital-asset requirements; role of government financial intermediation; and, lack of a perceived crisis in Japan. The paper then turns to general or global restraints to reform and focuses on Bank of Japan policy and the adverse effects of deflation. To date, Japan has not shown a willingness to accept the cost of reform and continues to engage in forgiveness and forbearance. Japan need not adopt the western-type of financial system to the same degree as in the United States or England, but it needs to find a way to depart from the system of mutual support and accept a system that allows for bankruptcy to play a more meaningful role in the allocation of resources.

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Paper provided by The European Institute of Japanese Studies in its series EIJS Working Paper Series with number 199.

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Length: 49 pages
Date of creation: 01 Sep 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hhs:eijswp:0199
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  1. Adam S. Posen, 1998. "Restoring Japan's Economic Growth," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 35.
  2. Takatoshi Ito, 1991. "The Japanese Economy," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262090295, June.
  3. Thomas F. Cargill & Michael M. Hutchison & Takatoshi Ito, 2001. "Financial Policy and Central Banking in Japan," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262032856, June.
  4. Cargill, Thomas F. & Parker, Elliott, 2002. "Asian finance and the role of bankruptcy: a model of the transition costs of financial liberalization," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 297-318.
  5. O'Hara, Maureen & Easley, David, 1979. "The Postal Savings System in the Depression," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(03), pages 741-753, September.
  6. Becker, Gary S, 1983. "A Theory of Competition among Pressure Groups for Political Influence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 98(3), pages 371-400, August.
  7. Magnus Blomström & Jennifer Corbett & Fumio Hayashi & Anil Kashyap, 2003. "Structural Impediments to Growth in Japan," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number blom03-1, May.
  8. Thomas F. Cargill & Michael M. Hutchison & Takatoshi Ito, 1997. "The Political Economy of Japanese Monetary Policy," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262032473, June.
  9. Cargill, Thomas F. & Parker, Elliott, 2004. "Price deflation and consumption: central bank policy and Japan's economic and financial stagnation," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 493-506, June.
  10. Thomas F. Cargill & Naoyuki Yoshino, 2001. "Japan's new prime minister and the Postal Savings System," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue may18.
  11. George J. Benston & George G. Kaufman, 1997. "FDICIA after Five Years," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 139-158, Summer.
  12. Thomas Cargill, 2002. "Japan passes again on fundamental financial reform," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue sep27.
  13. Paul R. Krugman, 1998. "It's Baaack: Japan's Slump and the Return of the Liquidity Trap," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 29(2), pages 137-206.
  14. Cargill, Thomas-F, 2001. "Monetary Policy, Deflation, and Economic History: Lessons for the Bank of Japan," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 19(S1), pages 113-134, February.
  15. Hiroshi Ono & Marcus E. Rebick, 2003. "Constraints on the Level and Efficient Use of Labor in Japan," NBER Working Papers 9484, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521803694 is not listed on IDEAS
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