IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/hal/wilwps/halshs-02794605.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Extreme and Persistent Inequality: New Evidence for Brazil Combining National Accounts, Surveys and Fiscal Data, 2001-2015

Author

Listed:
  • Marc Morgan

    (PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, WIL - World Inequality Lab)

Abstract

This paper reexamines the evolution of income inequality in Brazil over the last fifteen years using a novel combination of data sources. We measure distributional national accounts (DINA) to produce a new series of pretax national income inequality, com bining annual and nationally representative household survey data with detailed information on income tax declarations, in a consistent manner with macroeconomic totals. Our results provide a sharp upward revision of the official estimates of inequality in Brazil, while the falling inequality trends are less pronounced than previously measured. The concentration of income at the top is striking, with the Top 1% income share increasing to 28.3% by the end of the period, from an initial share of 26.2%. The Top 10% increased their share of income from 54.3% to 55.6% of pretax national income and captured 62.5% of total growth. The Bottom 50% share rose from 12.6% to 13.9%, experiencing higher growth than the top decile, but capturing only 20% of total growth due to its extremely low command of income. While elites and the poor made gains, the Middle 40% of the distribution decreased its share from 33.1% to 30.6%, posting less growth than the average for the whole economy. The "squeezed middle" is a product of its relatively low share of income and poor growth performance. Overall, inequality within the bottom 90% declined while concentration at the top grew, effects manifested in the slight downward trend of the corrected Gini coefficient. The former was driven by falling inequality in the distribution of labour income, which we document after combining surveys and fiscal data. While labour income inequality (and especially the formal earnings component) registered a clear decline according to our series –following the sharp rise in the real minimum wage, falling informality and fading out of the education premium – it was insufficient to mitigate the extreme inequality of capital resources and reverse the growing concentration of national income among elite groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Marc Morgan, 2017. "Extreme and Persistent Inequality: New Evidence for Brazil Combining National Accounts, Surveys and Fiscal Data, 2001-2015," World Inequality Lab Working Papers halshs-02794605, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:wilwps:halshs-02794605
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://shs.hal.science/halshs-02794605
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://shs.hal.science/halshs-02794605/document
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Emmanuel Saez & Gabriel Zucman, 2014. "Wealth Inequality in the United States since 1913: Evidence from Capitalized Income Tax Data," NBER Working Papers 20625, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Junyi Zhu, 2014. "Bracket Creep Revisited - with and without r > g: Evidence from Germany," Journal of Income Distribution, Ad libros publications inc., vol. 23(3), pages 106-158, November.
    2. Wookjae Heo & John E. Grable & Barbara O’Neill, 2017. "Wealth Accumulation Inequality: Does Investment Risk Tolerance and Equity Ownership Drive Wealth Accumulation?," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 133(1), pages 209-225, August.
    3. Clément Bellet, 2017. "Essays on Inequality, Social Preferences and Consumer Behavior," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/vbu6kd1s68o, Sciences Po.
    4. Facundo Alvaredo & Anthony Atkinson & Lucas Chancel & Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez & Gabriel Zucman, 2016. "Distributional National Accounts (DINA) Guidelines : Concepts and Methods used in WID.world," Working Papers halshs-02794308, HAL.
    5. Xavier Gabaix & Jean‐Michel Lasry & Pierre‐Louis Lions & Benjamin Moll, 2016. "The Dynamics of Inequality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 84, pages 2071-2111, November.
    6. Venkatasubramanian, Venkat & Luo, Yu & Sethuraman, Jay, 2015. "How much inequality in income is fair? A microeconomic game theoretic perspective," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 435(C), pages 120-138.
    7. Rishabh Kumar, 2015. "Wealth accumulation and aggregate demand stagnation in a two class economy with applications to the United States," Working Papers 1526, New School for Social Research, Department of Economics.
    8. Rishabh Kumar, 2016. "Personal Savings from Top Incomes and Household Wealth Accumulation in the United States," International Journal of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(3), pages 224-240, July.
    9. Elinder, Mikael & Erixson, Oscar & Waldenström, Daniel, 2018. "Inheritance and wealth inequality: Evidence from population registers," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 165(C), pages 17-30.
    10. Alexis Akira Toda & Kieran James Walsh & Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh, 2020. "The Equity Premium and the One Percent [Stock return predictability: Is it there?]," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 33(8), pages 3583-3623.
    11. Thomas Piketty, 2015. "A Historical Approach to Property, Inequality and Debt: Reflections on Capital in the 21st Century," CESifo Forum, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 16(01), pages 40-49, May.
    12. Philippe De Donder & John E. Roemer, 2017. "The dynamics of capital accumulation in the US: simulations after piketty," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 15(2), pages 121-141, June.
    13. Chatzouz, Moustafa, 2014. "Government Debt and Wealth Inequality: Theory and Insights from Altruism," MPRA Paper 77007, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. John Schmitt, 2015. "Failing on Two Fronts: The U.S. Labor Market Since 2000," CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs 2015-05, Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR).
    15. Thomas F. Crossley & Cormac O'Dea & Facundo Alvaredo & Anthony B. Atkinson & Salvatore Morelli, 2016. "The Challenge of Measuring UK Wealth Inequality in the 2000s," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 37, pages 13-33, March.
    16. Jess Benhabib & Alberto Bisin, 2018. "Skewed Wealth Distributions: Theory and Empirics," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 56(4), pages 1261-1291, December.
    17. Andreas Fagereng & Luigi Guiso & Davide Malacrino & Luigi Pistaferri, 2016. "Heterogeneity in Returns to Wealth and the Measurement of Wealth Inequality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 106(5), pages 651-655, May.
    18. Brant Abbott & Giovanni Gallipoli, 2022. "Permanent‐income inequality," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 13(3), pages 1023-1060, July.
    19. Mariacristina De Nardi & Fella Giulio & Fang Yang, 2016. "Piketty’s Book and Macro Models of Wealth Inequality," Chicago Fed Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    20. Marius Brülhart & Jonathan Gruber & Matthias Krapf & Kurt Schmidheiny, 2016. "Taxing Wealth: Evidence from Switzerland," NBER Working Papers 22376, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hal:wilwps:halshs-02794605. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Caroline Bauer (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.