IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/hal/journl/halshs-02588449.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Urban gravity in the global container shipping network

Author

Listed:
  • César Ducruet

    (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, GC (UMR_8504) - Géographie-cités - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPCité - Université Paris Cité)

  • Hidekazu Itoh

    (Kwansei Gakuin University)

  • Justin Berli

    (GC (UMR_8504) - Géographie-cités - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPCité - Université Paris Cité)

Abstract

While the spatial and functional relationships between ports and cities have been put in question in the last decades, the continued importance of urbanization and maritime transport in global socio-economic development motivates deeper research on their interaction. The global trade network is often studied at the country level and all transport modes included, concluding that distance remains a strong counterforce to exchange. This article wishes to detect whether the global container shipping network obeys similar properties at the city level. More than 2 million inter-port vessel movements between 1977 and 2016 are assigned to about 9000 ports and 4600 cities to run a gravity model on two different network topologies. Gravitational properties are found, as larger cities connect more with each other but less at distance. The degree of distance effects negatively expanded in 40 years, confirming the "puzzling" or reinforcing effect of distance, yet it varies greatly depending on node aggregation and network topology. We conclude that ports and cities continue to share important interdependencies, but these often rest on a detrimental physical transformation. A discussion is proposed about the underlying operational and theoretical mechanisms at stake.

Suggested Citation

  • César Ducruet & Hidekazu Itoh & Justin Berli, 2020. "Urban gravity in the global container shipping network," Post-Print halshs-02588449, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-02588449
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102729
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-02588449
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-02588449/document
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102729?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. César Ducruet & Claudio Ferrari & Hidekazu Itoh & Alessio Tei, 2017. "The local determinants of interregional shipping flows," Post-Print hal-01623620, HAL.
    2. Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2011. "Gravity, market potential and economic development," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(2), pages 281-294, March.
    3. Bernhofen, Daniel M. & El-Sahli, Zouheir & Kneller, Richard, 2016. "Estimating the effects of the container revolution on world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 36-50.
    4. Sung-Woo Lee & Dong-Wook Song & César Ducruet, 2008. "A tale of Asia’s world ports : The spatial evolution in global hub port cities," Post-Print hal-03247143, HAL.
    5. Jean-François Brun & Céline Carrère & Patrick Guillaumont & Jaime de Melo, 2015. "Has Distance Died? Evidence from a Panel Gravity Model," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Developing Countries in the World Economy, chapter 13, pages 299-320, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    6. Justin Berli & Mattia Bunel & César Ducruet, 2018. "Sea-Land Interdependence in the Global Maritime Network: the Case of Australian Port Cities," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 447-471, September.
    7. César Ducruet & Faraz Zaidi, 2012. "Maritime constellations : A complex network approach to shipping and ports," Post-Print hal-03246963, HAL.
    8. Irwin, Douglas A. & Tervio, Marko, 2002. "Does trade raise income?: Evidence from the twentieth century," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 1-18, October.
    9. Bougheas, Spiros & Demetriades, Panicos O. & Morgenroth, Edgar L. W., 1999. "Infrastructure, transport costs and trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 169-189, February.
    10. Notteboom, Theo, 2016. "The adaptive capacity of container ports in an era of mega vessels: The case of upstream seaports Antwerp and Hamburg," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 295-309.
    11. César Ducruet & Faraz Zaidi, 2012. "Maritime constellations: a complex network approach to shipping and ports," Maritime Policy & Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(2), pages 151-168, March.
    12. Fatima Mohamed-Chérif & César Ducruet, 2016. "Regional integration and maritime connectivity across the Maghreb seaport system," Post-Print halshs-01145664, HAL.
    13. Fatima Mohammed-Chérif & César Ducruet, 2016. "Regional integration and maritime connectivity across the Maghreb seaport system," Post-Print hal-03246938, HAL.
    14. Peter Egger, 2008. "On the Role of Distance for Bilateral Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5), pages 653-662, May.
    15. Wilmsmeier, Gordon & Hoffmann, Jan & Sanchez, Ricardo J., 2006. "The Impact of Port Characteristics on International Maritime Transport Costs," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 117-140, January.
    16. Huang, Rocco R., 2007. "Distance and trade: Disentangling unfamiliarity effects and transport cost effects," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 161-181, January.
    17. Antoine Peris & Evert Meijers & Maarten Ham, 2018. "The Evolution of the Systems of Cities Literature Since 1995: Schools of Thought and their Interaction," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 533-554, September.
    18. Jane Korinek & Patricia Sourdin, 2010. "Clarifying Trade Costs: Maritime Transport and Its Effect on Agricultural Trade," Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 32(3), pages 417-435.
    19. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2004. "Trade Costs," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 691-751, September.
    20. Hu, Yihong & Zhu, Daoli, 2009. "Empirical analysis of the worldwide maritime transportation network," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(10), pages 2061-2071.
    21. Fujita,Masahisa & Thisse,Jacques-François, 2013. "Economics of Agglomeration," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9781107001411.
    22. Alberto Behar & Benjamin D. Nelson & Phil Manners, 2009. "Exports and Logistics," Economics Series Working Papers 439, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    23. Keith Head & Thierry Mayer, 2011. "Gravity, market potential and development," Post-Print hal-01024209, HAL.
    24. Céline Carrère & Maurice Schiff, 2005. "On the Geography of Trade. Distance is Alive and Well," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 56(6), pages 1249-1274.
    25. Justin Berli & Mattia Bunel & César Ducruet, 2018. "Sea-Land Interdependence in the Global Maritime Network: the Case of Australian Port Cities," Post-Print hal-01806692, HAL.
    26. César Ducruet & Theo E. Notteboom, 2012. "The worldwide maritime network of container shipping: Spatial structure and regional dynamics," Post-Print halshs-00538051, HAL.
    27. César Ducruet, 2017. "Advances in Shipping Data Analysis and Modeling. Tracking and Mapping Maritime Flows in the Age of Big Data," Post-Print hal-03246488, HAL.
    28. Marco Fugazza & Jan Hoffmann, 2017. "Liner shipping connectivity as determinant of trade," Journal of Shipping and Trade, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 1-18, December.
    29. Justin Berli & Mattia Bunel & César Ducruet, 2018. "Sea-land interdependence in the global maritime network : the case of Australian port cities," Post-Print hal-03246914, HAL.
    30. César Ducruet & Céline Rozenblat & Faraz Zaidi, 2010. "Ports in multi-level maritime networks : Evidence from the Atlantic (1996-2006)," Post-Print hal-03247133, HAL.
    31. César Ducruet & Sung-Woo Lee, 2006. "Frontline soldiers of globalisation : Port-city evolution and regional competition," Post-Print hal-03246480, HAL.
    32. Geraci, Vincent J & Prewo, Wilfried, 1977. "Bilateral Trade Flows and Transport Costs," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 59(1), pages 67-74, February.
    33. César Ducruet & Hidekazu Itoh, 2016. "Regions and material flows : Investigating the regional branching and industry relatedness of port traffic in a global perspective," Post-Print hal-03246412, HAL.
    34. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/c8dmi8nm4pdjkuc9g8mb6c01j is not listed on IDEAS
    35. César Ducruet & Theo Notteboom, 2012. "The worldwide maritime network of container shipping : Spatial structure and regional dynamics," Post-Print hal-03246962, HAL.
    36. César Ducruet & Hidekazu Itoh, 2016. "Regions and material flows: investigating the regional branching and industry relatedness of port traffics in a global perspective," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 805-830.
    37. Mohamed-Chérif, Fatima & Ducruet, César, 2016. "Regional integration and maritime connectivity across the Maghreb seaport system," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 280-293.
    38. César Ducruet, 2015. "Maritime Networks. Spatial Structures and Time Dynamics," Post-Print hal-03246485, HAL.
    39. Bensassi, Sami & Márquez-Ramos, Laura & Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada & Suárez-Burguet, Celestino, 2015. "Relationship between logistics infrastructure and trade: Evidence from Spanish regional exports," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 47-61.
    40. Rodrigue, Jean-Paul & Notteboom, Theo, 2010. "Foreland-based regionalization: Integrating intermediate hubs with port hinterlands," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 19-29.
    41. David S Jacks & Krishna Pendakur, 2010. "Global Trade and the Maritime Transport Revolution," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 92(4), pages 745-755, November.
    42. Adolf Ng & César Ducruet, 2014. "The changing tides of port geography (1950-2012)," Post-Print hal-03246944, HAL.
    43. Grosche, Tobias & Rothlauf, Franz & Heinzl, Armin, 2007. "Gravity models for airline passenger volume estimation," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 175-183.
    44. Ducruet, César & Cuyala, Sylvain & El Hosni, Ali, 2018. "Maritime networks as systems of cities: The long-term interdependencies between global shipping flows and urban development (1890–2010)," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 340-355.
    45. Ducruet, César & Rozenblat, Céline & Zaidi, Faraz, 2010. "Ports in multi-level maritime networks: evidence from the Atlantic (1996–2006)," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 508-518.
    46. César Ducruet & Sylvain Cuyala & Ali El Hosni, 2018. "Maritime networks as systems of cities : the long-term interdependencies between global shipping flows and urban development (1890-2010)," Post-Print hal-03246922, HAL.
    47. Jean-Paul Rodrigue & Theo Notteboom, 2015. "Looking inside the box: evidence from the containerization of commodities and the cold chain," Maritime Policy & Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(3), pages 207-227, April.
    48. César Ducruet & Faraz Zaidi, 2012. "Maritime constellations: A complex network approach to shipping and ports," Post-Print halshs-00551207, HAL.
    49. Peter V. Hall & Wouter Jacobs, 2012. "Why are maritime ports (still) urban, and why should policy-makers care?," Maritime Policy & Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(2), pages 189-206, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ducruet, César & Itoh, Hidekazu, 2022. "The spatial determinants of innovation diffusion: Evidence from global shipping networks," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 101(C).
    2. César Ducruet & Hidekazu Itoh, 2022. "Spatial network analysis of container port operations: the case of ship turnaround times," EconomiX Working Papers 2022-15, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    3. Ma, Jun-Chao & Wang, Li & Jiang, Zhi-Qiang & Yan, Wanfeng & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2021. "City logistics networks based on online freight orders in China," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 583(C).
    4. Tocchi, Daniela & Sys, Christa & Papola, Andrea & Tinessa, Fiore & Simonelli, Fulvio & Marzano, Vittorio, 2022. "Hypergraph-based centrality metrics for maritime container service networks: A worldwide application," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 98(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ducruet, César & Itoh, Hidekazu & Berli, Justin, 2020. "Urban gravity in the global container shipping network," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 85(C).
    2. César Ducruet, 2020. "The geography of maritime networks: A critical review," Post-Print halshs-02922543, HAL.
    3. Ducruet, César & Itoh, Hidekazu, 2022. "The spatial determinants of innovation diffusion: Evidence from global shipping networks," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 101(C).
    4. César Ducruet & Hidekazu Itoh, 2022. "The spatial determinants of innovation diffusion: Evidence from global shipping networks," Post-Print halshs-03719062, HAL.
    5. Jung, Paul H. & Thill, Jean-Claude, 2022. "Sea-land interdependence and delimitation of port hinterland-foreland structures in the international transportation system," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 99(C).
    6. Ducruet, César, 2020. "The geography of maritime networks: A critical review," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 88(C).
    7. Tocchi, Daniela & Sys, Christa & Papola, Andrea & Tinessa, Fiore & Simonelli, Fulvio & Marzano, Vittorio, 2022. "Hypergraph-based centrality metrics for maritime container service networks: A worldwide application," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 98(C).
    8. Moura, Ticiana Grecco Zanon & Garcia-Alonso, Lorena & del Rosal, Ignacio, 2018. "Influence of the geographical pattern of foreign trade on the inland distribution of maritime traffic," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 191-200.
    9. David Guerrero & Patrick Nierat & Jean-Claude Thill & Emmanuel Cohen, 2022. "Shifting proximities. Visualizing changes in the maritime connectivity of African countries (2006/2016)," Post-Print hal-03738595, HAL.
    10. Nicanor García Álvarez & Belarmino Adenso-Díaz & Laura Calzada-Infante, 2021. "Maritime Traffic as a Complex Network: a Systematic Review," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 387-417, June.
    11. Calatayud, Agustina & Mangan, John & Palacin, Roberto, 2017. "Connectivity to international markets: A multi-layered network approach," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 61-71.
    12. César Ducruet, 2020. "Revisiting urban hierarchy and specialization from a maritime perspective," Post-Print halshs-02434274, HAL.
    13. Hongchu Yu & Zhixiang Fang & Guojun Peng & Mingxiang Feng, 2017. "Revealing the Linkage Network Dynamic Structures of Chinese Maritime Ports through Automatic Information System Data," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 9(10), pages 1-17, October.
    14. Ducruet, César, 2017. "Multilayer dynamics of complex spatial networks: The case of global maritime flows (1977–2008)," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 47-58.
    15. César Ducruet & Sylvain Cuyala & Ali EL Hosni, 2016. "The changing influence of city-systems on global shipping networks: an empirical analysis," Journal of Shipping and Trade, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 1-19, December.
    16. Laure Rousset & César Ducruet, 2020. "Disruptions in Spatial Networks: a Comparative Study of Major Shocks Affecting Ports and Shipping Patterns," Post-Print halshs-02588551, HAL.
    17. Tovar, Beatriz & Hernández, Rubén & Rodríguez-Déniz, Héctor, 2015. "Container port competitiveness and connectivity: The Canary Islands main ports case," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 40-51.
    18. Laure Rousset & César Ducruet, 2020. "Disruptions in Spatial Networks: a Comparative Study of Major Shocks Affecting Ports and Shipping Patterns," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 423-447, June.
    19. Zhang, Qiang & Pu, Shunhao & Luo, Lihua & Liu, Zhichao & Xu, Jie, 2022. "Revisiting important ports in container shipping networks: A structural hole-based approach," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 239-248.
    20. Jin, Lianjie & Chen, Jing & Chen, Zilin & Sun, Xiangjun & Yu, Bin, 2022. "Impact of COVID-19 on China's international liner shipping network based on AIS data," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 90-99.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    graph theory; gravity model; maritime trade; port cities; spatial interaction; urban systems; world city networks; complex networks; container shipping; globalization;
    All these keywords.

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-02588449. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: CCSD (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.