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Channels of R & D Spillovers: An Empirical Investigation

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  • Harabi, N.

Abstract

R&D spillovers are, potentially, a major source of endogenous growth in various recent "new growthJ theory" models. The purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically the effectiveness of various channels of R&D spillovers. The analysis is based on a survey conducted among 358 Swiss R&D executives representing 127 different lines of business, mainly in the manufacturing sector. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. Undertaking independent R&D was perceived by the R&D executives questioned as the most effective channel of R&D spillovers at the intra-industry level. This was followed by reverse engineering for product innovations and the utilization of publications and information from technical meetings for process innovations. 2. Learning methods that rely on interpersonal communication were judged as moderately effective in the following order of importance: 1. publications and technical meetings, 2. conversations with employees from innovating firms, and 3. hiring away employees from innovating firms. Especially the last method is not valued as effective in the Swiss context. 3. Learning methods related to the patent system - licensing technology and patent disclosures in the patent office were seen as moderately effective or not effective at all 4. The effectiveness of the various channels of R&D spillovers varies from one industry to another. 5. Finally results of the methods of multivariate statistical analysis (correlation, principal components and cluster analysis) suggested that the various channels of R&D spillovers could be reduced to subgroups, so that patterns of learning of competitive technology could be established
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Suggested Citation

  • Harabi, N., 1995. "Channels of R & D Spillovers: An Empirical Investigation," Papers 37, Universitat Zurich - Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Institut.
  • Handle: RePEc:fth:zuriwi:37
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    Cited by:

    1. Martin Wrobel, 2009. "Das Konzept regionaler Cluster: zwischen Schein und Sein?," Review of Regional Research: Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft, Springer;Gesellschaft für Regionalforschung (GfR), vol. 29(1), pages 85-103, February.
    2. Cassiman, Bruno & Perez-Castrillo, David & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2002. "Endogenizing know-how flows through the nature of R&D investments," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 775-799, June.
    3. Liliana Araújo & Sandra T. Silva & Aurora A.C. Teixeira, 2013. "Knowledge spillovers and economic performance of firms located in depressed areas: does geographical proximity matter?," FEP Working Papers 488, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    4. Pedro de Faria & Francisco Lima, 2012. "Interdependence and spillovers: is firm performance affected by others’ innovation activities?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(36), pages 4765-4775, December.
    5. Kadokawa, Kazuo, 2011. "Applicability of Marshall’s Agglomeration Theory to Indus-trial Clustering in the Japanese Manufacturing Sector: An Exploratory Factor Analysis Approach," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 41(2).
    6. Thomas Doring & Jan Schnellenbach, 2006. "What do we know about geographical knowledge spillovers and regional growth?: A survey of the literature," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(3), pages 375-395.
    7. De Bondt, Raymond, 1997. "Spillovers and innovative activities," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 1-28, February.
    8. Veugelers, Reinhilde, 1997. "Internal R & D expenditures and external technology sourcing," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 303-315, October.
    9. Schmidt, Tobias & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2009. "Knowledge sourcing: legitimacy deficits for MNC subsidiaries?," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2009,09, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    10. Oerlemans, Leon A.G. & Meeus, Marius T.H., 2002. "Spatial embeddedness and firm performance: an empirical exploration of the effects of proximity on innovative and economic performance," ERSA conference papers ersa02p054, European Regional Science Association.
    11. Wölfl, Anita, 1999. "Absorbing External Knowledge for Innovation Success – Does the Recipe Work?," IWH Discussion Papers 94, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    12. Chen, Jin & Chen, Yufen & Vanhaverbeke, Wim, 2008. "The influence of scope, depth, and orientation of external technology sources on the innovative performance of Chinese firms," MPRA Paper 22589, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2010.
    13. Meeus, Marius T.H. & Oerlemans, Leon A.G. & Dijck, Jules J.J. van, 1999. "Regional systems of innovation from within.An empirical specification of the relation between technological dynamics and interaction between multiple actors in a Dutch region," Working Papers 99.1, Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies.
    14. Tobias Schmidt & Wolfgang Sofka, 2005. "Lost in Translation - Empirical Evidence for Liability of Foreignness as Barriers to Knowledge Spillovers," Industrial Organization 0512012, EconWPA.

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    Keywords

    research and development;

    JEL classification:

    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D

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